Search This Blog

Loading...

Textile Animation

Wednesday, 13 October 2010

DYEING AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIBRES

‘:
DYEING
AND
CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
OF TEXTILE FIBRES


E. R. TROTMAN
M.B.E., Ph.D. -.
FOURTH EDITION
LONDON

C H A R L E S G R I F F I N & C’OMI’ASY I,lMI’I’ED
4 2 D R U R Y L.4NE, LOSDOS, \V. C:. 2
0 Charles Griffin & Co. Ltd, 1970


All Rights Rcscrved
No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any
form or by any means, electronic, mcchanicdl, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without the prior
permission of Charles Griffin & Company Limited.
1st edition . . . . 1924
2nd edition . _ . . 1046
2 n d impression . 1 9 4 8
3rdedition _, . . 1964
4th edition . . . . 1970
ISBN 0 85264 165 6
Set and printed in Great Britain by
Butler and Tanner Ltd, Fronts and London
PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION
THERE are many excellent textbooks describing particular aspects of bleaching
and dyeing. There are, however, not many that give a survey of the whole field
in one volume. The hope that, in this respect, Dyeing and Chemical Technology
of Textile Fihres would fulfil a need has received ample confirmation by the
demand for previous editions.
LVhat is provided in one volume is not only the scientific and technical information
which will be required by the dyer and finisher in his day-to-day work, but
also such other information and references to original sources as will assist him
to follow the literature and keep abreast of current developments.
The text consists virtually of two portions. The first describes the chemistry
and properties of the textile fibres together with the processes which precede
dyeing. The second part, with the exception of the last two chapters dealing
wtth testing and the theory of colour, describes the dyes and the methods by
which they are applied. 1Yhere specific details of dyeing or other processes are
given, usually only one set of operating instructions is quoted. The purpose of
these is to demonstrate general principles and provide instructions that are
applicable to the most common conditions. The reader, however, will also find
the information required to enable him to modify the standard instructions to
suit the many variations necessitated by local conditions, such as the nature of
the water supply, the technical skill of the labour available, and lack of uniformity
in the properties of the textiles presented to the processer.
The author is grateful to those who reviewed the Third Edition for their helpful
suggestions and these have been taken into account in the preparation of the
present book. Most chapters contain additional matter of current interest. The
chapter dealing with the relationship between colour and chemical constitution
has been expanded and an addition has been made in the form of an introduction
to the theory of dyeing. The final paragraphs at the end of the book include an
introduction to instrumental match prediction.
Thanks must be expressed to the many organizations who helped with illustrations
and the supply of information and also to the librarian Mr Smirfnt,
M.Sc., A.T.I., and his staff at the Hosiery and Allied Trades Research Association
for their very great assistance on many occasions. The author is grateful to
Dr W. L. Lead who helped with reading proofs, and he would also like to express
his great appreciation to Charles Griffin & Co. Ltd for their painstaking
editing and for publishing this book.
E . R . TROTMAN
Nottingham
ranuary 1970
V

C O N T E N T S ’
Chapter
History of dyeing
The early history of dyeing textile materials and the use of dyes derived from
natural sources. Perkin’s discovery of Mauveine and a short description of the
synthetic dyestuff industry.
General properties of fibres
Some general properties of textile fibres and yarns. The building of macromolecules
by polymerization. The use of X-ray diffraction methods in investigating
molecular structure of fibres. The significance of crystalline and
amorphous regions and the determination of their relative proportions. Fibrillar
structure of fibres. The nature of intermolecular forces in crystalline regions.
Molecular weight of polymers. Relative humidity and moisture content of
fibres. Classification of fibres.
Cotton and the chemistry of cellulose
The natural history and structure of cotton fibres. The chemistry of cellulose
and of its degradation products. The fluidity and other tests for determining
the degree ‘of degradation of cellulose. The action of physical conditions and
chemicals on cotton. Mercerization and the explanation of the action of sodium
hydroxide by Donnan’s theory of membrane equilibrium.
Multicellular vegetable fibres
The multicellular vegetable fibres, including descriptions of flax, ramie, hemp,
and jute; short descriptions are included of their preparation for spinning and
their properties and uses.
Animal fibres
The growth of animal hairs and the tissues of which they are composed. Wool
sorting and qualities. The chemistry of proteins and keratin and the properties
conferred by salt and cystine cross links. The relationship between elastic
properties and molecular structure and a and fl keratins. The cultivation of
silkworms and the properties of silk.
Regenerated man-made fibres
The production of nitrocellulose rayon by Chardonnet. Regenerated cellulose
yarns, including cuprammonium and viscose and the more highly orientated
fibres obtained by stretch spinning. Polynosic fibres. Thepreparationof cellulose
acetate and spinning fibres from the product. The production and uses of
alginate yarns. A short description of regenerated protein fibres.
vii
Page
1
42
37
66
74
109
.
v 111 CONTENTS
7 Sk nthetic fibres
The large-scale preparation of hcxamethylene diamine and adipic acid. The
spinning and properties of nylon 66 and other polyamides. Polyesters, including
the manufacture of terrphthnlic acid and Terylene. The properties of acrylonitrile
and the polyacrvlonitrile fibres. Fibres obtained from polyurethane and
vinyl products. Crimping thermoplastic yarns. Elastomeric fibres.
,( 8 Water and water purification
The classification of natural waters and the impurities in the claises. The
hardness of water and lime-soda and base-exchange methods of Softening.
Sequestering agents. Methods of determining temporary and permanent hardness.
Effluents.
!/9
ho
1 1
12
!
I 13
Detergents and scouring 183
The properties of waxes and vegetable oils and the manufacture and properties
of soap. Anionic and cationic compounds. Surface tension and the mode of
action of surface-active compounds, including the theory of detergency. Kier
boiling cotton; scouring wool, silk, and the man-made fibres. Solvent scouring.
Bleaching 222
Bleaching powder and sodium hypochlorite and the determination of available
chlorine. Bleaching cellulosic fibres with hypochlorites. Hydrogen peroxide and
its properties and use in bleaching textiles. The use of sodium chlorite for
bleaching cellulosic and other fibres. Staving with sulphur dioxide. Fluorescent
brightening agents.
Unshrinkable and other finishes
Causes of shrinking of wool and a review of shrink-proof finishes. Assessment
of shrinkage and degradation of wool fibres by chemical action. Description of
crease-resist and easy-care finishes for cellulosic materials. Cross-linking.
Methods for making fabrics fire resistant, water repellent, and moth- and
milde#&oof.
.5
Introduction to chemical constitution and colour, theory of dyeing, 303
and classification of dyes
Theories of relationship between colour and chemical constitution of organic
compounds. Introduction to theory of dyeing. Classification of dyes.
Dyeing machines 335
Basic requirements of dyeing machines and the materials used in their construction.
Descriptions of machines for dyeing loose stock, hanks, packages,
fabrics, and garments.
160
260
CONTENTS
14 Basic dyes
Chemistry and chemical classification of basic dyes. The nature of the affinity
of basic dyes for fibres and a description of the methods of application. The
fastness and other properties of basic dyes and their uses.
1.5 Acid dyes
1.5 The chemical nature, classification, and application of acid dyes. Theoretical
explanations of the nature of the affmity of animal fihres for acid dyes and the
action of dyebath assistants. Application of acid dyes at high temperature
and in the presence of organic solvents, and in the dyeing of silk.
ix
368
378
16 The direct dyes 405
The discovery of direct dyes and their classification according to chemical
structure. Theory of dyeing and the relationship between structure and substantivity.
The effects of temperature, electrolytes, and liquor-ratio on dyeing.
Description of various after-treatments to improve wet-fastness.
17 Mordant dyes
Valency and the significance of covalent bonds in lake formation. Naturally
occurring mordant dyes. The properties and application of acid mordant dyes
and of the 1:l and 2:i premetallized d y e s .
430
18 Azoic dyes 444
The dyeing of Para Red and the development of the substantive series of
naphthol derivatives. Bases used for diazotization and coupling in the production
of azoic dyes and the preparation of stabilized diazonium compounds.
Description of the methods of application of azoic dyes.
19 Sulphur dyes
The chemistry, general properties, application, and after-treatment of sulphur
2:: Tendermg of cellulosic fibres by residual sulphur. Water-soluble sulphur
X CONTENTS
20 Vat dyes 474
Chemical characteristics of irnlia~kl and anthraquinonc Git dyes. and the
relationship hctwcrn structure and nfhnity for cellulosic iihrcs. ‘The application
of vat dyes and the use of restraining agents. Fastness properties and accclerated
photochcrnical action. Continuous methods for dyeing with vat dyes.
21 Disperse dyes and dyeing cellulose acetates 506
Disperse dyes and their mechanism of dyeing. Description of the methods of
application, including diazotization and coupling on the fibre. Fastness properties
of disperse dyes and gas fading.
22 Reactive dyes 520
Reactions of cyanuric chloride and the chemistry of reactive dyes. Evidence
supporting the formation of a covalent bond between the dye molecule and
cellulose. Application of dichlorotriazinyl dyes at low temperatures and monochlorotriazinyl
dyes at high temperatures, by batch and continuous methods.
Description of the Remazol, Primazine ard Levafix dyes. Procilan dyes.
23 Dyeing synthetic fibres 544
Presetting thermoplastic fibres. Dyeing polyamides, polyesters, and polyacrylonitriles.
24 Dyeing materials containing mixtures of fibres 574
Dyeing materials composed of mixtures of fibres. Description of the crossdyeing
and production of solid shades on wool and cellulosic unions. Dyeing
textiles containing polyamides, polyesters, or polyacrylonitriles mixed with
other fibres.
25 l’esting dyed materials . 587
Use of grey scales in expressing results of fastness tests. Determination of light
fastness and description of fading lamps, and the effect of humidity on light
fading. Washing, perspiration, bleaching, cross-dyeing, and mereerization
fastness tests. identification of dyes by spotting tests and ehromatographic
methods.
CONTENTS xi
26 Colour 615
The spectrum and additive and subtractive primaries. Description of Oswald’s
and Munsell’s systems of colour classification and the C. I.E. chromaticity chart.
The design and use of calorimeters and spectrophotometers. Instrumental
match prediction.
Appendix: Miscellaneous information and tables 649
Comparative thermometer scales. Comparison of hydrometer scales. Specific
gravities of caustic soda and caustic potash lyes. Specific gravities of sulphuric
acid, Temperatures of dry saturated steam. Decinormal solutions. Hydrochloric
acid specific gravities. Specific gravities of acetic acid, formic acid, and ammonium
hydroxide solutions. pH intervals over which indicators change
colour. Gallons, litres, and pints conversion table. Conversion factors.
Name index 661
Dyestuff index 664
General index 667
i ‘,
LIST OF SOME ABBREVIATIONS
U S E D I N T H I S B O O K
Abbreviation
Am. Dyes. Rep.
Ber.
Biochem. 7.
EE
Heiv. ‘Chim. Acta
Ind. Eng. Chem.
I.S.O.
I.W.T.O.
J.A.C.S.
J. Amer. Chem. Sot.
7.C.S.
j: Chem. Sot.
7. Opt. Sot. Amer.
$&N,B.S.
J:S:D:d.
J. Text. Inst.
Melliand Textilber.
Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage
Helvetica Chimica Acta
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
International Standards Organization
International Wool Textile Organization
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Journal of the Chemical Society
Journal of the Chemical Society
Journal of the Optical Society of America
Journal of Research, National Bureau of Standards
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry
Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists
Journal of the Textile Institute
Melliand Textilberichte
N.B.S. National Bureau of Standards
Proc. Roy. Sot. Lond. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London
Rev. Mod. Phys. Review of Modern Physics
Text. Res. J. Textile Research Journal
Trans. Farad. Sot. Transactions of the Faraday Society
Explanation
American Dyestuff Reporter
Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft
Biochemical Journal
Colour Index
xii
DYEING AND
CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
OF TEXTILE FIBRES
Also by E. R. Trotman 9
Textile scouring and hlcaching
I - History of dyeing
THE dyeing of textiles is usually understood to mean giving them a colour
which is of comparative permanence. This implies that it should not be
possible to wash the colour out easily in laundering, nor should it fade
rapidly when exposed to light. The condition of permanence distinguishes
dyeing from tinting (when the material is given a colour which is very easily
removed with a detergent and water). Yarns are tinted occasionally so that
diiierent counts and qualities can be identified during weaving or knitting
or any operation which precedes dyeing. In the definition of dyeing the
permanence, or fastness, of the colour bestowed was qualified by the adjective
comparative. There is probably no dye which can be guaranteed not to
alter shade under all conditions. There are great variations in the fastness of
different dyestuffs but, as will be revealed, there have been many signifisrnt
milestones in the search for better fastness during the last hundred years,
It is believed that dyeing was practised as early as 3000 B.C. in China,
although no conclusive proof of this is available. The earliest records of
Indian religious and social practices belong to the period of about 2500 B.C.,
and they contain references to coloured silk and gold brocades from which
it can be concluded that dyeing was then already an established practice.
It could be that the craft was transmitted through Persia to Egypt. Relics
of ancient civilization have been better preserved and more thoroughly
explored in Egypt than in any other Eastern country. From paintings on
the walls of tombs it can be inferred that as long ago as 3000 B.C. the Egyptians
were making coloured mats which they hung on their walls. It has
also been established beyond doubt that Dyer’s thistle, also known as Safflower,
was in use in 2500 B.C. to produce red and yellow shades. By about
1450 B.C., the Egyptians were making textile materials of astonishingly delicate
structure and were able to dye them in a whole range of different
colours.
In the chronological sequence of history, classical civilization followed
that of the Far and Middle East. Tyrian Purple, the badge of the patrician
Roman, is believed to have originated in the Phoenician town of Tyre. We
owe much of our knowledge of classical dyeing to the writings of Pliny, who
has left a record of a number of recipes in use during his era. There was
also a dyer’s work-shop excavated at Pompeii. The walls are decorated with
a series of murals illustrating various operations as they were then performed.
It is interesting to observe that one illustration is of Mercury bearing
a bag of money, symbolic of the fact that, in those days, dyeing was a
profitable trade.
1
2 DYAING AND CHEhfICAI. TECHNOLOGY 01’ TEXTILE FIBRES
\rith the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Dark Ages dcsccndcd upon
Europe, a period during which we have practically no records of the arts
and crafts. It is not until 1371 that information about dyeing made its
appearance again, when the dyers formed their own independent (build in
Florence. This Guild had only a short life, because it was dissol\.cd in 13S2,
but soon afterwards, dyers’ Guilds \vcre to appear throughout all the
European countries. In I,ondon the first charter was besto\\-cd upon the
Worshipful Company of Dyers in 1471. As was the custom in those days,
the Guild exercised a strict control over entry into the trade, the workmanship
and the trading practices of its members.
Until the middle of the last century, all dyes were obtained from natural
sources. Indigo, extracted from the plant Indi&jera tinrl~rin, and Alizarin,
obtained fro& the root of madder, have been used in India since the beginning
of recorded history. Some of these products were probably esported
to adjacent countries sudh as Iran (Persia), and may have spread from there
to the Middle East. Neither alizarin nor indigo was available in Europe
until the route to the East via the Cape of Good Hope had been oprned up.
Curthumus tinctorius or safflower, also knowrn as Dyer’s thistle, is a plant
common in Asia, Africa and the Mediterranean countries. The flowers contained
a colouring principle which was used by dyers as a source of delicate
rose and rich scarlet colours, and as a cosmetic when mixed with talc. .4
textbook on dyeing and calico printing, written by Parnell in 1844, gives
a good account of the natural dyestuffs which were in use before the advent
of synthetic dyes.
We also know from Roman history that woad was used by ancient
Britons. It was obtained from a plant known as Isatis tinctoriu, which was
cultivated in France, Germany, and in Britain. The active substance in
the plant was indigotin, which was the same compound from which indigo
was prepared in the East. Indigotin is blue, but is virtually insoluble in
water. Before it can be used as a dyestuff it has to be reduced. Until modern
chemical reducing agents were available, dyers had to rely upon natural
fermentation of vegetable matter, in the course of which hydrogen, a
reducing agent, was produced. Woad contained the micro-organisms required
to set up fermentation, which would bring about reduction of the
indigotin. It was therefore only necessary to allow an aqueous infusion of
the plant to stand under the right conditions, and in time, a liquor suitable
to use for dyeing would be produced. It was, however, an extremely skilful
operation to control the fermenting mass in such a way that only the correct
hydrogen-producing micro-organisms would flourish and multiply, and
not become exterminated by some other species which had not the desired
characteristics.
When the trade route to the East was opened up, in spite of much protest
fromthe woad growers oriental indigo soon replaced indigotin from all other
sources. Woad was then only cultivated for its value as an ingredient to
HISTORY OF DYEING 3
initiate fermentation of the indigo infusion. It is interesting to record that
Tyrian purple has the same chemical structure as indigo, except that two
hydrogen atoms have been substituted by bromine. Both of these colouring
matters belong to a group which is now known as the vat dyes, and
which is described fully in Chapter 20.
In order to give some idea of the trouble which had to be taken to prepare
indigo for dyeing, the following notes, taken during the setting of a vat with
the aid of woad, are quoted from the Jubilee issue of the Journal of the
Society of Dyers arrd Colottrists, 1934. l’he vat in which the fermentation
was carried out was circular in cross-section, with a diameter of 6 ft and a
depth of 7 ft. The following is the daily record from the Dyer’s diary.
TUESDAY 5 p.m. Filled with water and heated to 60°C (140°F). Four
and a half hundredweight of broken woad added.
WEDNESDAY 9 a.m. Liquor heated to 60°C (140°F) and stirred. 3 p.m.
heated again to 60°C (140°F) and stirred. 5 p.m. added 6 gallons of
indigo paste, 14 lb of madder, 9 pints of slaked lime and 30 lb of bran.
Heat to 60°C (140”F), stir, and then cover the vat and leave it overnight.
THURSDAY 9 a.m. Liquor olive-brown in colour, sample of sediment
showed a mild state of fermentation. Slight sourness discernible. Add
2$ pints of lime, heat to 54°C (I 30°F) and stir. At 1 p.m. slight frothing
on the surface noticed, the colour of the liquor was dark olive-brown
and fermentation was acti1.e. On plunging a stirring rake to the bottom
of the vat, coppery blue stars rose to the surface of the liquor in the vat,
and the odour of the sediment was slightly sour. Two pints of lime
were added, and the liquor was stirred. At 4 p.m. a blue flurry appeared
on the surface, together with an abundance of coppery blue stars and
blueveins. Fermentationwas still active, and the odour of the sediment
was a little less sour. A further 2 pints of lime were added with stirring.
At 5.30 p.m. much flurry had accumulated, and the liquor had become
a yellowish oli\.e colour with a slightly ammoniacal smell. A swatch of
bvhite wool cloth was immersed during 15 minutes when it dyed a good
medium blue. This indicated that reduction of the indigo was proceeding
satisfactorily. Two pints of lime and 1 A gallons of indigo paste were
added, and the temperature was raised to 54°C (130°F). At 9.30 p.m.
there was an abundance of flurry, the surface was a dark blue colour,
and the liquor itself a dull yellow. By this time, the fermentation was
abating, and the odour was slightly ammoniacal. A further 2 pints of
lime were added, the temperature again raised to 54’C (130”F), and
the liquor left overnight.
FRIDAY 9 a.m. The flurry \vas as before, and there was a coppery blue
skin on the surface. The liquor was slightly turbid and amber yellow





HISTORY OF DYEIU(; I 9
the fibre by successive application of two soluble components capable of
combining in situ. This idea was first given practical ezprcssion by A. G.
Green, who synthesized a yellow direct dye named Primuline which itself
was of no importance because its fastness was very poor. It did, however,
contain within its molecule a primary amino group. Green demonstrated
that it was possible to dye cotton with Primuline, then cause it to react with
nitrous acid, and subsequently couple the diazotized product with beta
naphthol to give a red dye of much greater wet-fastness. This principle has
since been extended to quite a number of dyes and is still in use for blacks
and navies where adequate fastness at a comparatively low cost is required.
An analogous method of obtaining colours on cotton of satisfactory wetfastness
consists of synthesizing an insoluble azo colour within the fibre.
In 1880 Read Holliday showed that it was possible to dye cotton by padding
it with beta naphthol and subsequently passing it through a solution of
diazotized beta naphthylamine. This was called the Vacanceine Red process,
but it never found much favour. In 1889 Meister, Lucius, and Bruning
with the Badische Co. introduced Para Red, in which the fibre was first
padded with beta naphthol and then coupled with diazotized paranitraniline.
This was very successful and in a short time entirely replaced the
use of Alizarin for dyeing fast red shades on cotton.
/?-naphthol had no affinity for the fibre and had to be fixed temporarily
by drying before coupling with the diazonium salt. This made application
tedious and caused poor rubbing fastness. In 1911 Zitscher and Laska
discovered that the anilide of 3 : 2-hydroxynaphthoic acid had a significant
affinity for cellulose. This compound could be coupled with a
variety of diazotized bases and was the forerunner of many analogous
naphthoic acid derivatives. The name azoic dyes has been given to what
has become a very important group of colours obtained by this method.
In 1893 a French chemist, Raymond Vidal, obtained a product which
would dye cotton a greenish black by heating together a mixture of sodium
sulphide and sulphur with either paranitrophenol or aminophenol. This
was the first of a group known as the sulphur dyes, and was followed by
the discovery of sulphur blues, greens, yellows, browns, and oranges. They
are cheap, easy to apply, and of good light- and wet-fastness, but they lack
brightness of colour and this places a limitation upon their use.
Tyrian purple and indigo, which have been used since time immemorial,
possessed fastness properties which far surpassed those of the early synthetic
dyes. The ancients got surprisingly good results using methods based
entirely on empirical knowledge. These colours belong to the group known
as the vat dyes which all undergo reversible oxidation and reduction. The
oxidized state is an insoluble coloured pigment, and the reduced compound
is soluble in alkali, has an affinity for cotton, and is colourless or quite
different in colour from the oxidized pigment. Dyeing with vat dyes involves
applying the reduced form to the fibre and then oxidizing it either


2 ?? Gene.ral properties of fibres
THERE are ma fibrous structures in nature, but only those which can
be spun into ya s suitable for weaving or knitting can be classified as
textile fibres. In rder that it may have commercial value a textile fibre
‘.
must possess cert in fundamental properties. It must be readily obtainable
in adequate q ntities at a price which will not make the end-product
too costly. It must have sufficient strength, elasticity, and spinning power.
The latter property implies a measure of cohesion between individual
fibres which will give strength to the yarn when they are twisted together.
The spinning of fibres is, without doubt, helped when there is a certain
amount of surface roughness or serration, and it is also promoted by
fineness and uniformity of diameter. In addition to these fundamental
properties there are others Which are desirable, such as durability, softness,
absence of undesirable colour, and an affinity for dyes. Some fibres have
few, and others have many, of these properties: silk, as an example, possesses
most of them developed to a high degree. Some of the valuable properties,
such as colour or softness, may be latent, and the object of finishing
processes is to develop them to the highest possible extent without in any
way damaging the fibre.
There is a distinction between what are commonly known as staple fibres
and continuous filaments. Staple fibres, of which wool and cotton are the
classical examples, are of the order of one to four inches in length. These
have to be converted into yarns by carding and spinning processes. Continuous
filaments, as the name implies, are hundreds, if not thousands, of
feet in length. Silk is the only abundant naturally-occurring example, but
all man-made fibres are in the first place produced as continuous filaments.
The single strand of the continuous filament is a monofilament. Commercial
yarns usually consist of several monofilaments lightly twisted together or,
to use a term well known in the trade, ‘thrown’.
When making very delicate materials it may be necessary to use a yarn
which is so fine that it would break down under the stresses imposed on it
during manufacture. The strength, however, is sufficient once the fabric is
made because of the mutual support of adjacent threads. In such cases it is
customary to impart temporary strength to the yarn by a process known as
sizing. This consists of impregnating the thread with some easily removed
substance such as starch or dextrine and, in the case of the more modern
man-made fibres, with a synthetic product such as polyvinyl alcohol or
polyacrylic acid. The size is ‘usually removed before the article is dyed or
bleached. Yarns are frequently referred to as warp or weft yarns. In a
1 2
,
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF FIBRES 13
woven cloth the warp is the strength-giving element which provides the
scaffold or frame upon which the cloth is built. The weft yarn, which is
taken backwards and forwards by the shuttle, is often fuller or spongier,
its purpose not being to provide strength but to act as a filler so that the
finished material shall have a solid appearance. Knitted web is defined as
a weft fabric because it contains no warp and is made entirely of interlocking
rows of loops orientated in the weft direction.
Until just after the beginning of the present century nothing was known
about the molecular structure of textile fibres. As chemical knowledge about
natural products advanced it became apparent that fibre-forming molecules
were of great molecular weight, and were formed by polymerization of
simpler organic substances. Some explanation of the phenomenon of polymerization
is desirable because it is essential for an understanding of textile
chemistry. A polymer is a giant molecule of extremely high molecular
weight formed by the joining together of thousands of simple molecules.
A molecule capable of entering into polymerization is referred to as a
monomer. The simplest example of polymerization is the formation of
polyethylene from ethylene. The ethylene molecule has a double bond
(CH,==CH,) which, under the right conditions, is capable of linking with
adjacent molecules as shown in the equation below:
CH,=CH,+CH,=CH,+CH,=CH,
Monomers + -CH,-CH,-CH,-CH,-CHz-CH,-
Polymer
Theoretically there is no limit to the amount of such coupling and therefore
to the ultimate size of the molecule which will be formed. In practice,
the degree of polymerization depends upon the conditions under which the
reaction is carried out. Both the melting point and the fibre-forming potential
increase as the size of the molecule becomes greater. If ethylene be
caused to react at temperatures of about 300% under pressures between
100 and 200 atmospheres, the polymer is a liquid or a semi-solid. This is
no use for the production of fibres, but if the pressure is increased to the
order of 1000 atmospheres the product has a molecular weight of about
10,000 and will yield continuous filaments with an adequate degree of
strength. Pressure and heat are not enough in themselves to initiate polymerization,
and the presence of a catalyst is nearly always necessary.
Catalysts which have been used in the preparation of polyethylene are
benzoyl peroxide, ditertiary butyl peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and persulphates.
In 1950 Ziegler reported that compounds of the nature of
AI(C,H,), or TiCI,, when used as catalysts, made it possible to obtain polyethylene
at much lower pressures. This reduced the cost of the extremely
expensive plant required for the high-pressure technique.
The work of Ziegler and Natta led to the preparation of stereospecific
polymers by the use of selected catalysts. The term denotes spatial arrangement
of substituents of asymmetric carbon atoms in individual units.






































52 UTEISG its11 (‘111’~11(‘.~1. ‘rl’(‘ilsol.o(;~ ()I, ‘I‘ES’I-11.1’ I:II1HI:.s
IflO g of feiric a111m and IO0 ml of cone‘. 1 I,SO, per litrc follo\f-cd by cithcl
one or t\yo further applications of 10 ml each. ‘1%~ cotton is tinally washed
with 2s sulphuric acid, and the combined tiltratesarc titrated with standardized
potassium permanganate.
Fehling’s solution can also be used as a qualitative test for the presence
of aldehyde groups due to either hydrocellulose or osycellulose formation.
\Vhen cotton is boiled gently with the Fehling’s solution for about 10
minutes a red deposit of cuprous oxide can be observed either in local
patches or as a uniform stain, according to the distribution of the degradation.
Methylene blue test
Pure cellulose has no affinity for methylene blue, but the presence of
carboxyl groups associated with acidic osycellulose or residual mineral acid
associated with hydrocellulose formation do cause cellulosic fibres to absorb
the dye. Both qualitative and quantitative tests are based on these
facts. If cotton be immersed in a cold solution of methylene blue and then
rinsed with boiling water, any significant degree of staining indicates degradation.
Methylene blue can also be used as a reagent for quantitative
estimation. From 1 to 2 g of cotton are cut into small pieces and shaken
for 18 hours in a glass-stoppered bottle with 50 ml of a solution containing
0.4 milliinole of well-purified methylene blue hydrochloride per litre. A
measured volume of the solution is then withdrawn and the remaining
methylene blue is determined either calorimetrically or by titration with
Naphthol Yellow S. The latter method depends upon the fact that when
a solution of Naphthol Yellow S is run into one containing methylene
blue, a reddish-brown precipitate is formed, the blue colour of the solution
becoming less intense and finally changing to yellow. The end point is not
easy to detect with accuracy.
Methylene blue does not react with aldehyde groups which are characteristic
of hydrocellulose or oxidation of cellulose under acid conditions.
Thus a sample with a high copper number and low methylene blue affinity
indicates either hydrocellulose or acid oxidation. Hydrocellulose is usually
accompanied by residual traces of acid. If there is a reduction in the
methylene blue absorption brought about by boiling in dilute sodium
hydroxide, it indicates the presence of acid, because this treatment has
no effect upon the number of carbosyl groups. The latter will only be
converted into sodium carbosylate which will revert to sodium chloride and
carboxylic acid groups with the hydrogen chloride in the methylene blue
hydrochloride.
Silver nitrate test
This is also referred to as Harrison’s test. The reagent is a solution containing
1 per cent of silver nitrate, 4 per cent of sodium thiosulphate, and




COTTON AND THE CHEMISTRY OF CELLULOSE 57
Table 3.2
Perce?Itage of cotton
in mixptre~
Concentration of solution
in g per 100 ml
8 0
7 5
66.7
60
50
40
33.3
25 *
0.762
0.807
0.875
0.948
1.088
1.267
1.424
1.649
Action of heat
Cotton can be heated in a dry state to 150°C without undergoing decomposition,
but if the heating is prolonged a brown colour develops gradually.
A very slight brown discoloration can occur at temperatures lower than
150°C which causes no deterioration in the fibre but is sufficient .to spoil
the effect of bleaching. Care should be taken to control the temperature of
drying machines, and they should not be allowed to exceed 93°C (200OF).
Prolonged exposure at high temperature to an atmosphere containing oxygen
causes tendering due to the formation of oxycellulose.
Exposure to air during a long period, especially in the presence of sunlight,
will have an effect upon cotton similar to that of dry heat. Oxycellulose
is formed gradually accompanied by tendering. Turner (J.S.D.C.,
1920, 165) made a study of the significance of light and other factors. He
found that moisture had no effect upon the rate of tendering. The removal
of oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere very greatly reduced, although
it did not entirely inhibit, the destructive effect of light. The tendering by
light and air is accelerated by traces of metals such as copper. Cotton may
contain copper in small quantities derived, for example, from copper rollers
over which the yam passes in wet doubling machines, made before stainless
steel was used for this purpose. The author has examined cotton shirts
which, after being worn for about 3.months exposed to tropical sunlight,
became quite tender. Analysis showed that the damage was accompanied
by the formation of oxycellulose and traces of copper were present.
Action of water
Cold water causes cotton to swell but has no chemical action on it. The
swelling is accompanied by the disappearance of the natural twist which
reappears on drying. Sea-water can sometimes cause degradation of the
cellulose and exposure to the action of sea-water for periods of 3 to 5
weeks made both cotton and linen fibrics quite tender. This change was
58 DYEING APiD CIIEMICAI. TT:CIINOI.OGY OF TEXT1I.K FIRRES
accompanied by great alteration in the chemical properties, because no
less than 17 per cent of the fibre became soluble in boiling 1 per cent
caustic soda solution. Further investigation led to the conclusion that most
of this tendering was caused by micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen.
Cotton is liable to be attacked by moulds or bacteria provided that sufficient
moisture is present, and that the pH and temperature are favourable
to growth. It has been stated that cotton is not attacked unless it contains
9 per cent of moisture, after which the rate of multiplication of the microorganisms
can increase rapidly until a maximum is reached at 50 per cent
water content. Most moulds are allergic to acid but can grow abundantly
when the conditions are slightly alkaline and the temperature is above
21°C (70°F).
Bacterial or similar damage can be detected by the swelling test. Between
O-1 and 0.3 g of the cotton is boiled in a 1 per cent solution of sodium
hydroxide. It is then neutralized with acetic acid and washed and steeped
in 15 ml of cold 15 per cent sodium hydroxide solution to which 1.5 ml of
carbon disulphide are added after a short time. After 45 minutes the fibres
are mounted on a slide in water and examined under a microscope. Undamaged
fibres will show the characteristic swellings and constricted zones
as shown in Fig. 3.5 (b) . Those which have been attacked will have partially
or wholly lost their cuticle and will therefore swell uniformly and show no
globular formations. The same test can be carried out using cold Schweitzer’s
reagent to bring about the swelling.
The action of acids on cotton
Boiling with dilute acids will ultimately hydrolyse the cellulose to glucose.
Milder action by acids at lower temperatures gives rise to tendering
with the formation of hydrocellulose. Cold concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves
cellulose with the formation of cellulose hydrate. If this solution be
poured into cold water the cellulose hydrate is precipitated in a gelatinous
form. This reaction is used in the manufacture of parchment paper. Sheets
of paper are immersed for a short time in concentrated sulphuric acid and
then washed rapidly in cold water till free from acid. In this way the pores
in the paper are covered with an impervious film of cellulose hydrate. Cold
dilute solutions of mineral acids, unlike when at the boil, have no effect
upon cellulose provided the acid is neutralized or washed out completely
before drying. If, however, even traces of mineral acid be allowed to dry in,
tendering soon becomes apparent due to the formation of hydrocellulose.
As little as one part in one hundred thousand of sulphuric acid left in before
drying can cause gradual deterioration during storage.
Prevention of the tendering effect of acid can only be achieved by its
complete removal. This can be done with very prolonged rinsing with
water, a method which tends to make an excessive demand when water
supply is restricted or expensive. Neutralization with sodium carbonate




































ANIMAL FIBRES 95
*Although it has never been recognized in commerce, oxidizing agents such
as chlorine and hot pressing reduce the capacity of wool to absorb moisture.
This is a factor which can contribute to losses in weight during finishing.
In spite of its capacity to absorb moisture in the form of vapour, it is
extremely difficult to wet wool out in cold water. This is because the vapour
can penetrate to the cortex where it is retained, but in the liquid phase
water must pass through the epithelial scales which offer considerable resistance.
In order to wet wool out the temperature of the water must be
raised to 60°C (140°F) or, alternatively, a wetting agent must be used. The
absorption of water vapour is accompanied by the liberation of considerable
quantities of heat as illustrated by the following figures (ALEXANDER
AND HUDSON, Wool, its Chemistry and Physics, 1st edn.), see Table 5.3.
Unlike cotton, which becomes stronger as the moisture content increases,
wool becomes weaker.
Speakman and Cooper (J. Text. Inst., 1936, T 183), and Speakman and
Stott (7. Text. Inst., 1936, T 186) have studied the giving up of water by
wool in a dry atmosphere, or desorption, and the taking up of moisture
from the atmosphere, referred to as absorption. They have shown that there
is a hysteresis effect which means that the fibre will lose moisture more
Table 5.3
Initial moisture content
expressed as percentage of i
Heat of wetting expressed
as calories per 100 g of
dry weight of zoo01 dky zueight
0.0 2410
3.0 1880
6.4 1380
9.5 1010
13.1 630
15.0 470
17.8 330
rapidly in a drying atmosphere than it will take it up when conditions are
favourable to absorption. This is not without significance in commerce because
wool which has been dried in a hot chamber will take a long time to
return to its correct condition weight.
Action of air on wool
The capacity of wool to withstand atmospheric exposure is sufficient for
all practical purposes, but it must be recognized that there is a gradual
deterioration. This form of degradation is known as weathering. If the
goods are undyed, prolonged exposure produces a brown discoloration as
well as some increase in the affinity for dyes. This can cause difficulty in
the dyeing of wool which has been stored because portions to which air
and light hve had greater access will show up as a darker colour. i
96 DYEING AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIBRES
Action of acids on wool ‘?
Reference has already been made to the fact that prolon ;ied boiling of
wool with dilute acids ultimately hydrolyses the keratin to a mixture of CC
amino acids. As far as the requirements of dyeing and finishing are concerned,
where boiling periods of about 2 hours with concentrations of acid
(which rarely exceed 5 per cent of the weight of the material) are involved,
the degree of hydrolysis is negligible. Nitric acid is more harmful because,
even in quite dilute solutions, it produces a yellow discoloration. Wool
which has already suffered partial degradation through excess of alkali in
scouring or attack by micro-organisms during storage, is much less resistant
to the action of acids. Organic acids have virtually no action on the fibre.
Action of alkalis on wool
Whilst wool has a good resistance to acids, the reverse is the case with
alkalis. Strong alkalis such as sodium or potassium hydroxide attack and
dissolve it very rapidly, especially at elevated temperatures. Ammonia,
sodium carbonate, and other mild alkalis are less energetic in their action
but cannot be described as entirely harmless. If wool is soaked in a cold
(0” to 10%) 1 t s o u ion of sodium hydroxide of 82OTw (37 per cent) for about
5 minutes and then rinsed immediately, it suffers no damage and acquires
an increased affinity for dyes. Moreover, the wool does not shrink, as cotton
would, and crimped effects in mixtures of the two fibres can be obtained
by taking advantage of this fact. If wool is left in contact with alkali for any
length of time it becomes seriously damaged. The epithelial scales are first
loosened, giving access to the less resistant cortex which is rapidly broken
down into soluble products, and in time the scales are also dissolved. The
rate at which solution takes place depends upon the concentration of the
alkali, disintegration being most rapid in a solution containing about 20 per
cent of sodium hydroxide. As the temperature increases the degradation is
accelerated and a 2 per cent sodium hydroxide solution will completely dis -
solve wool at the boil in about 5 minutes. The proteins are converted into
sodium salts of simple amino acids. The sulphur forms sodium sulphide,
the presence of which is indicated by the black precipitate of lead sulphide,
formed with a solution of lead acetate. The presence of formaldehyde, glue,
or spent sulphite liquors protect wool to a certain extent against alkali
damage.
Mild alkalis have less effect, but again temperature and concentration are
important factors. Sodium carbonate is used in wool scouring and small
quantities of ammonia are sometimes added to a dyebath. Slight damage
caused by an alkali in scouring can render the fibre less resistant to subsequent
processes. Ammonia, ammonium carbonate, borax, sodium hexametaphosphate,
tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium triphosphate can
be used at temperatures up to 60” to 7O’C (140’ to 158°F) with safety.
Isoelectric point
ANIMAL FIBRES 97
This is the state when all the acidic and basic groups in the keratin are
electrostatically in equilibrium, as shown diagrammatically below :
When excess of hydrogen ions are present they will be attracted by the
electronegative carboxyl ions leaving a nett positive charge on the wool.
04
In a similar manner an will result in a negative
charge on the fibre by
The isoelectric region of wool is between pH 4.8 and 7.
Carbonization of wool
The relative resistance of wool to acids is of importance in freeing it from
burrs picked up by the sheep, If they are not removed they may cause
mechanical trouble in spinning and local discoloration in the finished cloth.
There are some vegetable impurities which do not absorb wool dyes and
may cause light-coloured spots after dyeing. The burrs, which are composed
of cellulose, are destroyed by treatment with acid and heat under
conditions harmless to the wool, but which will convert the cellulose to
hydrocellulose which can he pulverized and shaken out.
The first operation is acid impregnation, most commonly performed by
steeping in a 5 to 7 per cent solution of sulphuric acid for a period of 2 to
3 hours. This is followed by hydro-extraction and drying at 85” to 90°C
(185” to 194°F). The wool is then shaken mechanically when the hydrocellulose
falls away, after which the residual acid is either neutralized with
dilute sodium carbonate or washed out with water. It is customary in these
days to use continuous methods. The wool is scoured and then it passes
through a lead-lined bowl where impregnation with sulphuric acid takes
place. After squeezing, the wool next passes through a two-stage heating
assembly. In the first stage it is dried at 50” to 60°C (122’ to 140°F), and
in the second it is heated for 15 to 20 minutes at 95” to 100°C (203’ to
212’F). The material is next squeezed between fluted rollers to crush the






































136 DYEING AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIBRES
phenomenon occurs after winding it will lead to the formation of a loose
and unsatisfactory package and, for this reason, the yarn passes through a
conditioning chamber before it is wound.
A very important factor in the manufacture of nylon, as well as most of
the other synthetic fibres, is drawing. Freshly-spun yarn, in which the
molecules are unorientated, can be stretched to four times its original length
with corresponding decrease in its diameter. The elongation is accompanied
by progressive increase in orientation. In Fig. 7.3 a microscopic view of a
- .- ,-.. ---
Fig. 7.3 X -ray diagrams of nylon at different stages of draw.&
(Courtrsy of ‘Ciba R&y’)
filament of nylon is shown which is ‘undrawn at the point marked a, partially
drawn at b, and fully drawn at c. The X-ray diffraction diagrams at
a, b, and c are illustrated (Q, b, and c) and’they demonstrate clearly the relationship
between drawing and orientation. The mechanical system for
drawing is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 7.4. The yarn is supplied
at a fured speed by the feed roller and drawn off at a greater speed by the
draw roller, the acceleration between these two points determining the
amount of stretching. The point from which the tension is applied is fixed
by the draw pin round which the yarn is wrapped. A number of wraps
round the draw roll are necessary to prevent slippage and the separator roll
is mounted on an axis slightly inclined to that of the draw roll, in order to
keep the threads apart.
In the oriented fibres it has been shown that carbonyl oxygen atoms are



140 DYEING AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIBRES
known as Trelon and is made by copolymerizing nylon 66 salt-and caprolactam.
It melts at 238’C (MO°F) and, as might be expected, has properties
which are intermediate between nylon 66 and Perlan.
Nylon 7, a polymer of the lactam of heptoic acid, is called Enant and is a
Ruseian product. The initial raw materials are ethylene and carbon tetrachloride,
which are heated in the presence of benzoyl peroxide, which acts
as a catalyst, at a pressure of about 1300 lb per sq. in. when the following
reaction takes place:
,&H,+CI.C.CI, + CI(CIH,),,C.CI,
The compound in which rr equals 3 can be separated with ease by fractional
distillation and it is converted into omega-chloroheptoic acid by hydrolysis
with dilute sulphuric acid. The corresponding lactam is obtained by
the action of ammonia and the latter resembles caprolactam in polymerizing
into a super polyamide
,CH,-CH,-CO,
cH\HI-~~,-~~/NH
Nylon 9, which is polyaminoperlagonic acid, resembles Enant, except that
tt equals 8.
The polyamide’ fibres owe many of their characteristics such as strength
and comparatively low extension under load to hydrogen bonding and Van
der Waals forces between well-orientated molecuks. Endeavours have been
ma& to reduce these intermokcular forces by introducing side chains, the
usual method being to substitute the hydrogen atom in the NH group.
What is ealkd 1B 610 polyamide is composed of 20 per cent N:N di-isobutyl,
20 per cent isobutyl, and 40 per cent of unsubstituted hexamethylene
diamine copolymerized with sebasic acid (Wittbecker et al., hd. Eng.
C&u., 1948,40,875). It possesses marked elastic properties bearing some
resemblance to rubber as shown below in Table.7.1 (Fibrrs from synt&ic
polymm, Eke&r, p. 141).
Ten&y
Elongation (per cent)
Modulus at 100 per cent extenhn,
g/denier
Recovery (per cent)
TabAm 7.1
1B 610 polyamide
l-1 -7
g!5o4oo
&3-04
95-99
Natnral rubber
-
0*15-0~35
600-1100
0.01 S-0.025
100
Nylon 66
4-5
15-25
25-35
-
The earliit experiments which Carothers made in the field of giant ”
molecule synthesis were with dihydroxy straight-chain aliphatic alcohols .




SYNTHETIC FIBRES 1 4 5
by a crystal is a first order transition and the less clearly defined loosening
of the molecular arrangement in the amorphous zones is called the second
order transition.
The significance of the amorphous regions in relation to the second
order transition is shown clearly in the curves in Fig. 7.11. Orlon, the
most crystalline of the three fibres shows the least reduction of stiffness with
increase of temperature. Dynel, a copolymer, with the least crystallinity
exhibits the greatest reduction, and lying between these two is an experimental
acrylic fibre specially prepared with an intermediate degree of
orientation. Second order transition temperatures are : polyethylene terephthalate
(partly crystalline) 81 “C, nylon 66 (partly crystalline) 47”C, and
polyacrylonitrile 81 “C.
Polyacrylonitriles
Experimental work on the polymerization of acrylonitrile :
(CH,=CH-C-N) was commenced by Du Pont in 1940, and by 1942
small quantities of textile fibres were made available for commercial trials.
Ethylene, from petroleum cracking, is converted to ethylene oxide
which reacts with hydrogen cyanide in the presence of water containing
diethylamine and caustic soda at 50°C, to form ethylene cyanhydrin:
CH,
\
O-I- HCN ---f HO.CH,.CH,.CN.
CH2’
Dehydration with magnesium carbonate as a catalyst at temperatures between
170°C and 230°C converts the cyanhydrin into acrylonitrile:
HO.CH,.CH,.CN -a CH,=CH,.CrN + H,O.
Stirred jacketed reactor
monomer stripper
Water-
Storage
Fig. 7.12 Continuous polymerization of acrylonitrile
(Courtery of ‘Mm-made Textilrr Enc~clojkdia’)




















166 ~YEISG A,"r'D CHEMICAL TECHKOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIRRES
calcium sulphate scale is extremely hard and firmly attached. Silica is also
present in most natural waters and, although the quantities are small, it
leads to the formation of thin hard scales of calcium or magnesium silicate.
Deposition of scale on heating surfaces reduces conductivity and interferes
with heat transfer. This is not so serious in multitubular boilers with
economizers where the heated area is large, but can have a significant effect
upon fuel consumption in Lancashire and other simple shell boilers. The
greatest danger in boilers of modern design is tube failure caused by local
overheating under the scale.
The best way of preventing scale is to soften the water before it enters
the boiler by methods to be described later. Sometimes the use of softened
water is not practical. When boilers do not operate at very high pressure,
internal treatment can be effected by adding sufficient sodium carbonate
to precipitate the permanent hardness as carbonates, the temporary hardness
being removed automatically at the boiling point of water. The deposit
formed in this way collects as an easily-removed sludge, especially when
substances such as tannins or sodium silicate are added to assist in maintaining
the precipitate in a state of suspension. In high-pressure- boilers
sodium carbonate is hydrolysed to sodium hydroxide, and at 200 psi about
80 per cent will be converted to caustic alkali (HENDRY, J.S.D.C., 1942,
154). This is no use for removal of hardness, and sodium phosphates are
therefore used which are stable and which precipitate insoluble calcium or
magnesium phosphates.
Corrosion can be a serious cause of wear in boilers if suitable waters are
not used. All feed water should be just alkaline to phenolphthalein, and
sufficient caustic soda to create this degree of alkalinity should be added if
necessary, using a device to introduce it continuously. Dissolved oxygen in
the presence of carbon dioxide is a common cause of corrosion, especially
in modern high-pressure boilers. The carbon dioxide reacts with the iron,
forming ferrous carbonate which, in turn, tends to hydrolyse to ferrous
hydroxide :
Fe+H,O+CO, S$ FeCO,+H,
FeCO,+ H,O e Fe(OH),+CO,.
Both of these reactions are reversible and a state of equilibrium would soon
be reached and the formation of ferrous hydroxide would come to an end.
The oxygen, however, converts slightly-soluble ferrous into insoluble
ferric hydroxide, thus removing one of the products of the reaction, disturbing
the equilibrium, and allowing more iron to react with the carbon
dioxide. Oxygen is removed by preheating the feed water or by a deactivating
tank in‘which the water passes over iron turnings so that the corrosion
can expend itself on scrap metal. Reducing agents such as sodium sulphite
or hydrazine are also added to feed waters to remove dissolved oxygen.
WATER ANI) \\‘ATI:R PURIFICATION 167
Water softening
If wxtcr collt:lins more thall 5 parts per 100,000 of hardness it is generally
accepted that softening is desirable. It must be borne in mind, however,
that for many processes in a dyeworks hard water has no disadvantage. This
applies to a greater extent now than in the past because synthetic detergents,
which are stable in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, are
used to such a large extent. Softening can be quite expensive, and the use of
softened water where it is unnecessary is wasteful.
Temporary hardness is removed by boiling, but this is impractical in
daily use. The carbon dioxide can, however, be extracted from the bicarbonate
by the action of an alkali, calcium hydroxide being the one which is
commonly used. The reaction is as follows:
Ca(HCO,),+Ca(OH), -+ 2CaC0,+2H,O.
Thus the whole of the temporary hardness due to calcium is precipitated
as calcium carbonate. According to the equation it follows that 100 parts of
temporary hardness require 74 parts of calcium hydroxide or 56 parts of
calcium oxide. The reaction follows a slightly different course with magnesium
bicarbonate. The first stage is the conversion to magnesium carbonate
:
Mg(HCOJ,+ Ca(OH), --+ MgCO,+ CaCO,+ 2H,O.
The reaction, in this case, however, does not suffice to soften the water
because magnesium carbonate is sparingly soluble. A second molecule of
calcium hydroxide must therefore be added to precipitate the insoluble
magnesium hydroxide :
MgCO,+Ca(OH), -F Mg(OH),+CaCO,.
Thus, each molecule of magnesium bicarbonate present requires two of
lime for complete precipitation, and every part of temporary hardness due
to magnesium, expressed as calcium carbonate, requires 2 x 56 = 112 of
quicklime (CaO). Water will often contain dissolved carbon dioxide which
will combine with some of the lime added for softening:
Ca(OH),+ CO, -F CaCO,+ H,O.
* In order to calculate the exact quantity required to remove temporary
hardness, the free carbon dioxide must be known and allowed for.
Permanent har&ess is removed by converting the calcium and magnesium
sulphates into carbonates by the action of sodium carbonate:
CaSO,f Na,CO, -+ Na,SO,+ CaCO,
MgSO,+ Na,CO, -+ Na,SO,+ M&O,.
The calcium sulphate is thus removed as calcium carbonate, an equivalent
quantity of sodium sulphate being left in solution. Magnesium sulphate
would be converted into magnesium carbonate and this would require to









WATER AND WATER PURIFICATION 177
can be used to soften hard water. They are not a substitute for softening
where large quantities are involved but are useful when soft water is required
occasionally in small quantities. Calgon is often added to woolscouring
liquors, and E.D.T.A. is used with s;Iccess in dyeing where there
is a risk that traces of iron or other metallic contamination might cause
flattening of the shade.
Determination of hardness
Total hardness is the factor which is most commonly required in routine
testing. The simplest method is based on titration with a standard soap
solution which depends upon the reaction:
2C,,H,,COOK+CaCO, --+ (C,,H,,COO).&a+K,CO,,
from which it follows that 2 x 282 g of oleic acid are equivalent to 100 g of
calcium carbonate. Hence, 1 ml of a solution containing 564 g of oleic acid
per litre would precipitate 10~Xx25~~82 = 0.001 g of hardness expressed
as calcium carbonate.
To prepare a standard soap solution, about 57 g of pure oleic acid are
dissolved in 300 ml of alcohol and made neutral to phenolphthalein by
stirring in a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide till a pink colour
appears, which is finally discharged by the addition of just enough oleic
acid. The solution is then diluted to 1 litre with a mixture of two volumes
of alcohol to one volume of water. The standard solution is made by diluting
100 ml of this stock solution to 1 litre with a mixture of alcohol and
water (2:l). The soap solution is standardized against calcium chloride.
One gram of Iceland spar or pure calcium carbonate is dissolved in hydrochloric
acid. The solution is evaporated to dryness on a water-bath, the
residue dissolved in water, and again evaporated to dryness to expel the
last traces of hydrochloric acid. The remaining calcium chloride is dissolved
in water and made up to 1 litre. To standardize the soap, 10 ml of
the calcium chloride solution are pipetted into a stoppered bottle of about
150 ml capacity, and 40 ml of distilled water are added. The soap solution
is run into the bottle from a burette, at first about 1 ml at a time, the stopper
being repiaced after each addition and the contents of the bottle well shaken.
When the first indications of a foam or lather are observed, the soap solution
is added cautiously, a few drops at a time. After each addition the
bottle, after shaking, is laid on its side and the lather is observed carefully.
If it disappears rapidly more soap solution is required. The end point of
the titration is the formation of a foam or lather which remains for at least
one minute when the bottle is laid on its side. Since 10 ml of the standard
calcium chloride solution equals 0.01 g of calcium carbonate, the value of
the soap solution in terms of calcium carbonate can be calculated.
Soap solution is used, generally, to determine total hardness only. In











DETERGENTS AND SCOURING 189
or water-seeking, heads and hydrophobic, or water-avoiding, tails:
CHs.CH,.(CH&.CH, i COONa
Hydrqbobic :Hydrophylic
head
Soap is a surface-active compound, which means that in an aqueous solution
the molecules will not be distributed uniformly throughout the solvent
but will tend to congregate at the surface. The hydrophobic tails will be
repelled by the water and soap molecules will therefore tend to arrange
themselves with their hydrophylic heads immersed and their tails emerging.
Fig. 9.4 Idealized representation of positive adsorption
and selective orientation of detergent molecules in a
water surface
(Carrtesy O~NIVEN, 'Funda~als of Lktergmy')
The only place where this is possible is at the interface where a reduction
in surface tension will be caused by the tendency for hydrocarbon chains
to move away from the water phase, creating a force in a direction opposite
to the inward pull on the water molecules. Moilliet and Collie (Surface
A&&y, Spon, London, 1951) suggest that the surface active molecule
or ion can be looked upon as a bridge between the two phases making
the transition between them less abrupt. Another factor to be taken
into consideration is that the crowding together of molecules at the
interface gives a closely packed boundary layer offering resistance to the
liability of the surface to diminish in area. Soap is a surface-active compound
which tends to lower surface tension at boundaries between water
and air or oily substances. When the fatty acid component of the soap is of
low molecular weight the hydrophylic head can pull the hydrophobic tail
into the water, but as the number of carbon atoms increases this is no
longer possible. The lowest number of carbon atoms necessary to manifest
surface activity is 6 in the caproates (CH,(CH,),.COONa) but the lowest in
the series, which can be classified as good detergents, are the laurates
(CH,(CH,),,.COONa).











































‘I’he traditional
by the electrolytic
BLEACHING 233
method for making hydrogen peroxide was later replaced
process. When a saturated solution of potassium sulphate
is electrolysed, with adequate cooling, hydrogen appears at the cathode,
and at the anode potassium persulphate, KzSz08, instead of oxygen, collects
as a white crystalline mass. When this is acidified with dilute sulphuric acid
persulphuric acid is liberated which, on distillation, decomposes to sulphuric
acid and hydrogen peroxide:
H,S,O,+ZH,O --+ ZH,SO,+H,O,.
‘l’he distillate is a pure solution of hydrogen peroxide which can be concentrated
further by evaporation at 35” to 40°C (95” to 104’F) under a
pressure equivalent to 13 mm.
Barium peroxide and electrolytic methods have now been superseded by
a process based on the oxidation of 2-ethyl anthraquinol by atmospheric
oxygen :
OH
+O, --+ ,&fH5+HzOs.
OH 4
The 2-ethyl anthraquinone formed during the reaction is reduced back to
2-ethyl anthraquinol by catalytic reduction with hydrogen in the presence
of palladium.
The reactions are carried out in a mixture of organic solvents, and the
hydrogen peroxide is removed by aqueous extraction. An approximately
20 per cent solution is obtained which can be concentrated further by
vacuum distillation (IndustriaZ Chemist, January 1959, 1).
The strength of commerc;al hydrogen peroxide is expressed in terms of
the volume of oxygen liberated by a unit of volume of the solution. Thus
a lo-volume peroxide solution is one of which 1 ml is capable of liberating
10 ml of oxygen. The relationships between volume and percentage concentrations
are tabulated below:
Volume Weight per cent
3.3 1
10 3
100 27.2
110 30
The strength of a hydrogen peroxide solution can be estimated by titration
with ~/lo potassium permanganate. If the strength of the sample exceeds
5 vol it should be diluted 1 in 10, and 25 ml of the resultant solution
are titrated, after acidification with sulphuric acid, with N/IO permanganate
until a permanent pink colour makes its appearance. If the original sample

































































































































































ACID DYES 395
with sulphuric acid, but with acetic acid practically the whole of the dye
is taken up between the temperatures of 55” and 85°C (131” and 185°F).
In the case of Polar Brilliant Blue GAW (C.I. AC ID BLUE 127) exhaustion
proceeds from 30 per cent to 70 per cent between 70” and 85T
(158” and 185°F). These facts demonstrate the importance of controlling
the rate at which the temperature increases over its critical range when
applying the fast acid dyes.
Migration is a factor which must be taken into account in selecting the
best dyes for the purpose. The test used by Ris et &was to boil three dy&
pieces with undyed material of equal weight in three separate beak&.-
A blank dye liquor was used, containing all the additions except the dyestuff.
The samples were withdrawn from the three beakers in turn at
intervals of 30, 60 and 90 minutes, and the amount of colour on the dyed
and undyed samples assessed. From this information curves of tl-& type
shown in Fig. 15.8 and 15.9 are obtained. In each case the loss of depth of
30 60 90 30 60 90
TIME(min) TlME(mtn)
iC.I.ACID YELLOW 47) (C.I.ACID RED&i)
Fig. 15.8 Migration curve Fig. 15.9 Migration curve
at 1UO”C at 100°C
the dyed specimen is recorded in the top curve, and the bottom one represents
the colour adsorbed by the white sample. In the case of Erio F!avine
4G, after 3G minutes about one-third of the dye had been transferred,
after 60 minutes about 40 per cent, and at the end of 90 minutes the,two
pieces were virtually the same shade. This is an example of a dye with
excellent migrating power, and it is obvious that extreme lack of uniformity
of dye distribution in the early stages of a dyeing will be corrected by prolonged
boi!ing. In the case of Polar Red G, on the other hand, there is
practically no migration, therefore the two curves show very little sign of
approachmg each other. In this case migration is bad and extreme care
must be taken in the dyeing to ensure that adsorption of the dye is uniform.
‘The description of the effect of temperature on the adsorption of acid
dyes appears to lead to the conclusion that the best results will be obtained
if the dyebath is allowed to come from 40°C (105T) to the boil very slowly,
Goodall (J.S.D.C., 54, 47) disputed the universal validity of this assump -
tion. He considered the behaviour of acid dyes of the three types already





























































AZOIC DYES 457
* up in the truck before running into the dyebatb and, if it is Practical to do
so, the web should be opened out by hand as it enters. Full particulars are
given by Wiltshire in the paper already quoted.
@UPling
The second stage in the synthesis of the insoluble pigment within the
fibre consists of coupling with the diazonium salt. The various Fast Bases
are aromatic primary amines which have to be diaxotixed with sodium
nitrite and hydrochloric acid. The diazotixation should h carried out in
vessels free from metals, other tban stainless steel, because moat metallic
compounds promote catalytic decomposition. Under normal circumstances
the temperature should not rise above 18°C (6+4”F), hut it ia po&hle to
allow it to reach 24% (752°F) without serious consequences. The base is
dissolved in hydrochloric acid and boiliig water; this solution is diluted
with cold water and then cooled to 18°C. The sodium nitrite, previously
dissolved in water, is added with constant stirring. An excess of both
hydrochloric and nitrous acids are necessary to ensure complete diaxotixation,
and this can be safeguarded by testing for acid at intervals and for free
nitrous acid by the blue colour which it gives with starch iodide paper. The
solutions of diazotized bases are sufficiently stable for all normal practical
purposes provided that the temperature is kept below 20°C (68OF). There
are some which can be stored, in the absence of light, for as long as 1 to 2
weeks, and the stability will be improved by adjusting the pH to between
5 and 6.5. Decomposition is generally accompanied by turbidity and the
formation of a scum, indicating that the solution should be discarded.
Whilst excess of hydrochloric acid is necessary to ensure that diaxotization
will be complete, coupling will not take place if the pH is too low.
Sodium acetate is therefore added to the liquor to convert free hydrochloric
into acetic acid, after which the PH should be about 4.5. Coupling will also
be retarded if the liquor becomes alkaline, and this can occur easily on
account of the sodium hydroxide which may be left in the cotton after it
has been impregnated with the naphthol derivative. Excess of alkali can be
neutralized by adding acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, or aluminium sulphate.
Aluminium sulphate should not be used in a package-dyeing machine
because it gives rise to a certain amount of precipitated aluminium hydroxide
and this will be retained by filtration. Some loss of lustre of mercerized
cotton can also be caused by aluminium sulphate.
The actual coupling is carried out in a liquor, the temperature of which
should not exceed 20°C (68°F). In order to prevent the migration of the
coupling component into the liquor before the reaction has taken place,
25 g per litre (25 lb per 100 gallons) of common salt are added. In many
cases the coupling is quite slow, which is unfortunate, because it allows
more time for the naphthol derivative to migrate. To make the reaction as
rapid as possible the concentration of the diazotized base should at no time
458 DYEING AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIBRES
fall below O-5 g per litre (8 oz per 100 gallons). The addition of an assistant
such as a sulphated fatty alcohol or an ethylene oxide condensate tends to
improve the speed of the reaction and also to keep in suspension any pigment
formed in the liquor. The presence of such a surface-active compound
is particularly important in a package machine where deposition of insoluble
pigment on the surface of the fibres can present considerable difficulty in
its rem’oval.
The Fast Salts are stabilized diazonium compounds which have only to
be dissolved in water and they are ready to use for coupling. The method
of dissolving which is recommended is to use 5 litres of water for 1 kilo of
Fast Salt, or 4 pints for 1 lb, together with an amount of about 10 to 20 ml
of a wetting and dispersing agent. The water should not be hotter than
30°C (86°F) and the Fast Salt is sprinkled in slowly with constant stirring.
If solution is not complete, standing for 5 to 10 minutes should be effective,
after which the appropriate quantity is added to the dyebath through a
strainer. It will, in many cases, be necessary to add sodium acetate or a
compound to buffer excess of alkali. The necessary quantities will be quoted
in the dyestuff manufacturer’s instructions.
There is considerable variation in the rate at which coupling takes place
with different bases and Fast Salts, and the rate of reaction can be controlled
by the pH (HUCKEL, J.S.D.C., 1958,74,640). The diazo coupling
components are divided into four groups according to their coupling energies,
related to which are different pH ranges at which the reaction will be
most rapid.
Group I
High coupling energy. Optimum pH range 4-5. No buffer necessary to
maintain pH, but an alkali-binding agent is essential.
(a) Rapid coupling rate C.I. Azoic Diazo Components 6, 7, 3, 37, 9.
(b) Medium coupling rate C.I. Azoic Diazo Compownts44,2,18,16,12,
13, 34, 8, 36.
(c) Stow coupling rate C. I. Azoic Diazo Components, 19,50,5,4,38,
49, 17, 1, 27, 21.
Group 2
Medium coupling energy. OptimumpH range 5.5-6.5. Acetic acid/sodium
acetate buffered.
(a) Rapid coupling C.I. Azoic Diazo Components46, 30.
(b) Medium coupling rate C.I. Axoic Diazo Components 26, 33, 29, 39,
32, 11, 10.
(c) Slow coupling rate C.I. Azoic Diaxo Components 31,42, 25.





464 l)l‘l:IS(; A9D CIIEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIBRES
is placed in a test tube, together with some stannous chloride and hydrochk!
ric acid. ‘I-he top of the tube is covered over with a piece of filter paper,
in the centre of which a drop of lead acetate solution is placed with the aid
of a glass rod. The contents of the tube are heated gently until they begin
to boil. In the presence of hydrogen sulphide the paper becomes black due
to the formation of lead sulphide.
Some knowledge of the structure of the very complex molecules of the
sulphur dyes is being accumulated gradually. It has, for example, been
established that one of the reactions which takes place when sulphur is
heated with para-toluidine is the formation of dehydrothio-toluidine:
CHj
3
NH,+CH,
“z>N>*~Hs+2~s+2~zS.
S’
The dehydrothio-toluidine can react with another molecule of toluidine,
a process which may be repeated until quite a complex molecule has been
built up: .
3
+ CH, (-4)
NH,+ZH,S.
It has also been established that indophenol reacts with sodium polysulphide
to form a thiazone:
It is believed that the reactions indicated in equations (A) and (B) both
play an important part in the formation of sulphur dyes. When a mixture
of benzidine (NH,.C,H,.C,H,.NH,) anddehydrothio-toluidine is heatedwith
sulphur or sodium polysulphide a yellow sulphur dye known as Immedial
Yellow GG is obtained. The dye is a disulphide, but degradation products
have been isolated which show that it is built up from units of the structure
NH*D~~c-~~c,.. (I, ---s-s
S ’
0
‘s-S---




















































































DYEING SYNTHETIC FIBRES 849
heat by reducing equilibrium uptake. Nylon goods should be scoured
before dyeing, an operation which may be carried out either before or after
setting. Treatment during 30 minutes to 1 hour in a liquor containing 1 to
24 lb of a detergent and + to 1 lb of soda ash per 100 gallons at a temperature
of 70°C (158°F) is generally adequate. If the godds are to be dyed a
pale shade it may be necessary to bleach them with sodium chlorite or
peracetic acid. Nylon itself has quite a good white natural colour, but
presetting can cause a yellowish discoloration which could be sufficient to
detract from the clarity of pale bright shades.
Application of disperse dyes to polyamides
The method is essentially the same as that described in Chapter 21 for
their application to cellulose acetate. The dyestuff is sprinkled into 10 to
20 times its own weight of water with vigorous stirring. The use of boiling
water for pasting the dye is undesirable because it tends to cause the
formation of lumps, as does the addition of undiluted dispersing agent to
the unwetted powder. The entry of undispersed particles into the dyebath
should be avoided by straining.
About 1 to 2 lb per 100 gallons of a dispersing agent should be added
to the dyebath to keep the dye in suspension and to retard the rate of
adsorption. The goods are entered into a cold dyebath and the temperature
is raised over a period of 30 minutes to 85°C (185”F), where it is
maintained for a further 45 minutes. There is usually not much difficulty
about level dyeing because the exhaustion is not unduly rapid. The actual
rates of exhaustion however, do vary very much from one dye to another
and a good combination with comparable dyeing properties is:
c.1. DISPERSE YELLOW 3
c.1. D I S P E R S E R E D 1
c.1. DISPERSE BLUE 3
The disperse diazo blacks are applied by the general method for disperse
dyes, using the equivalent of 4 per cent of a colour of 300 per cent strength.
After dyeing, the nylon is rinsed and then diazotized in a cold liquor containing
3 lb of sodium nitrite and 9 lb of hydrochloric acid (32’Tw 3 1.5 per
cent) per 100 gallons, the reaction being complete after 30 minutes. The
goods are then rinsed and developed with4.5 per cent of p-hydroxynaphthoic
acid. The pH of the coupling liquor is adjusted to between 4 and 5 by the
addition of acetic acid and the goods put in cold. The temperature is
raised slowly to 60°C (140’F) an coupling is allowed to proceed at this d
temperature during a period of 30 minutes.
The light-fastness of most dispersed dyes on nylon is within the range
of 4 to 6, although there are quite a few falling lower. The washing fastness
varies considerably but can be as low as 2, and is usually not very satisfactory
in heavy shades. A few examples are quoted in Table 23.1.





DYEING SYNTHETIC FIBRES 55.5
The premetallized dyes are in many ways very suitable for dyeing polyamides.
They build up well into heavy shades because their affinity depends
upon physical forces and hydrogen bonds, associated with their molecular
complexity, as we11 as on the union of dye anions with amino groups. Their
washing and light fastnesses are extremely good and they are reasonably
level dyeing provided proper precautions are taken. It must, however, be
borne in mind that if the initial adsorption is not uniform there will be
absolutely no levelling due to migration on prolonged boiling. The premetallized
dyes are probably the worst class for emphasizing variations in
yarn properties.
‘I’he dye is added to a neutral liquor, the pH of which must under no
circumstances be lower than 7. The goods are entered and the temperature
is gradually brought to the boil. It is most important that the rise in temperature
should be slow because, with the exception of heavy shades, exhaustion
will be complete by the time that the boiling point is reached and
then little further levelling will take place. After boiling for 30 minutes, in
the case of heavy shades , exhaustion may be assisted by the addition of 1 to
3 per cent of ammonium acetate or dihydrogen phosphate. Surface-active
retarding agents afford considerable assistance in obtaining level results.
Procinyl dyes
This range combines the advantages of the disperse and the anionic
dyes. They are, in fact, molecules not containing ionic solubilizing groups.
Their adsorption by the fibre, therefore, is a physical process, conforming
essentially to a partition of a solute between two immiscible phases. They
do, however, contain within their molecule a group carrying a labile
chlorine atom capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide.
Thus under faintly acid conditions adsorption is comparatively uniform
and barrdness is avoided. When the dyebath is made alkaline a chemical
reaction takes place between the fibre and the dye thus giving a degree of
wet fastness comparable with the acid dyes.
The method of application is to set the dyebath at 40°C (104°F) with
the dyestuff and two parts per thousand of 30 per cent acetic acid and one
part of a non-ionic surface active compound. The temperature is raised
slowly to 85 to 100°C (185 to 212’F) and dyeing is continued at this
temperature for 30 minutes. The pH should be maintained at 3.5 to 4, if
necessary by the addition during the dyeing of a small amount of acetic
acid. At the end of 30 minutes 2.5 to 3 parts per thousand of soda ash are
added and this should be sufficient to bring thepH to between 10 and 10.5,
and fixation is carried out at the boil for a further 60 minutes. When dyeing
is complete the goods should be rinsed and the heavier shades soaped.
The washing fastnesses are of.the order of 5 to IS0 2 and 4 to 5 to IS0 3
tests.
The dyeing of nylon in pressurized machines at temperatures above













DYEING SYNTHETIC FIBRES 569
After padding, the material passes through a drying unit, which may be a
hot flue chamber, heated cans, or an infra-red pre-dryer, before entry into
the drying unit proper. The dried material containing a film of the padding
mixture is then heated to the desired temperature, which is somewhere
between 180 and 220°C in a hot flue oven, or on cans heated by gas or in a
fluidized bed.
At the high temperature at which thermofixation is carried out thermal
agitation of both the polyester and the dye molecule is substantially
increased. This permits much more rapid diffusion of the dye into the
fibre. The actual mechanism of fixation is probably mainly one of solution
of the dye in the polymer but the possibility of hydrogen bonding between
the carbonyl groups in the polymer and the amino or hydroxyl groups in
the dye cannot be excluded. There is also no doubt that Van der Waals’
forces come into play.
Dyeing polyacrylonitrile fibres
The acrylic fibres always contain a proportion of a copolymer upon
which the dyeing properties depend to a large extent, and as an example-
Courtelle contains negative groups so that it possesses a good affinity for
cationic dyes. The fibres are hydrophobic and, therefore, do not as a rule
possess a marked affinity for water-soluble dyes, although there are some
exceptions to this generalization. Polyacrylonitriles will dye with disperse
dyes at 95” to 100°C (203” to 212”F), but exhaustion is slow and there is
not good build-up for heavier shades. The saturation uptake of a few
disperse dyes at 95°C (203°F) on different fibres is shown in Table 23.2
(WALLS,J.S.D.C., 1956, 72, 262).
Table 23.2
Dye
Percentage uptake of dye
___--_ -
( Poly&l0- 1 Secondary
I nitrile
Polyamide ’ acetate
Dispersol Fast Yellow G
Dispersol Fast Orange G
Duranol Blue Green B
Dispersol Fast Yellow A
Duranol Red 2B
Duranol Brilliant Blue CB
1.4 4.8 7.4
1.1 14 7-3
1-o 95 104
3.0 5.0 16.0
I.8 4.5 11.0
3.5 8.0 10.5
.____.~~
It is apparent, therefore, that only pale to medium shades can be dyed at the
boil under atmospheric pressure. Better exhaustion is obtained at higher
temperatures but 110°C (230°F) should be regarded as the limit, because,
above this, there will be excessive shrinkage with most fibres.

DYEING SYNTHETIC FIBRES 571
Balmforth et al. (Y.S.D.C., 1964, 80, 577) described an investigation on
the mechanism of the attachment of basic dyes to the fibre. It was concluded
that equilibrium adsorptions conform to the Langmuir equation.
From this it was concluded that the reaction is one of ion exchange between
the hydrogen ions associated with the anionic groups and the cations of the
basic dye. The nature of the sites may’well be determined by the catalyst
used to promote polymerization of the polyacrylonitrile. The potassium
pcrsulphate/sodium bisulphite redox catalyst introduces sulphate or sulphonate
end groups. Confirmation of this has been provided by the use of
radioactive sulphur in the catalyst as wellas by infra-red spectroscopy. On
the other hand the amount of dye adsorbed exceeds that which can bc
accounted for by the sulphate or sulphonate end groups. The suggested
explanation is that there are also weakly acid groups present, such as
carboxyl, which do not attract the dye cations until all the hydrogen ions
in the strongly acid groups have been replaced and that furthermore, they
become active at higher pH values.
The basic dyes are applied from a liquor the pHof which is 5.5 for pale
to medium and 4.5 for heavy shades. For the medium shades 1 g,‘l of
acetic acid (80 per cent) will give the desired pH; for heavy shades 1 g A
of acetic acid (80 per cent) and 1 g,‘l of sodium acetate will be required.
It is also advisable to add 1 gjl of a non-ionic dispersing agent. In most
cases there is very little adsorption of the dye below 75°C (167°F) and the
critical range is from 80 to 100°C as shown in the graph in Fig. 23.12. It is
therefore advisable to raise the temperature to 75°C quite rapidly (20
minutes) and then allow one hour for it to reach 100°C.
A few vat dyes, such as those in the following list, can be app!ied to
polyacrylonitriles.
Durindone Pink FF C.I. VAT RED 1
Ciba Red 3BN c.1. VAT VIOLET 2
Sandothrene Brown G c.1. VAT BROWN 5
Durindone Blue 4B c.1. VAT BLUE 5
The dyes are vatted in the usual way and added to the dyebath, which is
then adjusted topH 10 by the addition of sodium bicarbonate, and the dyeing
is carried out at 95°C (203°F). Oxidation of the pigment requires treatment
with sodium percarbonate or perborate at 95°C (203°F) because the
action of atmospheric oxygen is slow. The vat dyes offer an opportunity
to dye a limited range of shades of excellent all-round fastness.

(4) C’(J(J~ to SK C‘ (100 I’) anal arId a further 2 per cent of sulphuric acid.
(.5) liaise to the boil and dvr at this tcnlpcraturc for 60 nlinutcs.
(0) If :III~ additions arc neccssary.cooI to XS C (190 F) before nlaking
tllcnl.
2 : I Premetallized dyes
(2) liaise the tcmpcraturc to the boil over a period of 45 minutes.
(3) I%oil for- 00 minutes, and add between 0.5 and 2 per cent of sulphuric
:icid if’ ncccssxv fur exhaustion.
(-I) C’ool to SS c’ (iU0 I:) for all shading additions.
(5) \\‘hcn the dyeing is complete cool the liquor to 71°C (160°F) with
the goods in mot& before running the dyebath off.
(6) I~inally scour for 20 minutes at 71 ‘C (160-F) with 1 per cent of a
non-ionic rlctcrgcnt and 0.5 per cent of soda ash.
\Vith the 1 : 1 premetallized dyes the procedure is essentially the same
lvith the cxcc*ption that the liquor is made up initially with 2 per cent of
sull>tl\tric acid and the goods art‘ run at 38°C (100°F) for 10 minutes before
the dye is ;~dtkd. ;\fter boiling for 30 minutes the temperature is reduced to
Xii C (100 I:) and a further 2.per cent of sulphuric acid is added, or whatcvcr
amount is found to be necessary to bring about good exhaustion.
.



























TESTING DYED MATERIALS 601
Fastness to chlorination (I.S.O. Recommendation)
The test is designed for yams or goods which will, at a later stage of
manufacture, receive unshrinkable treatment. A specimen of the dyed
material measuring 7~5 x 5 cm is recommended. If it be desirable to ascertain
the degree of staining of other fibres, a few stitches of the appropriate
undyed yarn are sewn into the fabric at approximately l-cm inten&, The
sample is immersed for 10 minutes at room temperature in 2.5 times its
weight of a solution of hydrochloric acid containing 6 ml (1.16 sp gr) per
litre of the acid; then an equal volume of sodium hypochlorite solution
containing 1 g of available chlorine per litre is added, and treatment is
continued in a cold liquor for another 10 minutes. The sample is next
rinsed thoroughly in cold running water and subsequently dechlorinated in
a 3 g per litre sodium sulphite (Na,SOJH,O) solution at 35” to 40°C (9S”
to 104OF), using a SO:1 liquor ratio for a period of 10 minutes. After rinsing
and drying at temperatures not exceeding 60°C (140°F), assessments of
alteration of colour and staining are made with the aid of the appropriate
grey scales.
Fastness to cross-dyeing (I.S.O. Draft Recommendation)
The purpose is to test yarns intended for use with wool, and which
should withstand dyeing by all the methods that may be used for the protein
fibre. The yarns should be knitted into fabrics for the preparation of
the samples. A piece of the dyed material measuring 10 cmx 4 cm is
placed between two pieces of undyed cloth and sewn round the edges. One
undyed piece should be of the same fibre as that of the sample undergoing
test, and the other selected as follows:
Fibre under test Composition of alternate undyed piece
Cotton W o o l
W o o l Cotton
Silk W o o l
Linen W o o l
Viscose rayon W o o l
Cellulose acetate W o o l
Polyamide fibre W o o l
Polyester fibre W o o l
Acrylic fibre W o o l
The specimen is then tested in the following different ways corresponding
with the methods by which wool may be dyed, the liquor ratio always being
5O:l and the percentages being based on the weights of the protein and
polyamide fibre in the composite sample.
(1) Neutral cross-dyeing
Enter the composite specimen into a liquor containing 20 per cent of
fjt)2 DYEING AND CHI:‘BIICAL TEC!ItNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIRRES
sodiumsulphatecrystals.‘i’hc temperaturcis raised to93,0 it: 2V(19S0 + 4’F)
over a period of 30 minutes, and nlaintained for a further 90 minutes.
(2) Acetic acid cross -dyeing
The procedure is as in (1) except that the liquor contains 5 per cent of
acetic acid (30 per cent) and 20 per cent of sodium sulphate crystals .
(3) Sulphuric acid cross -dyeing
The procedure is similar, but a solution containing4 per cent of sulphuric
acid (sp gr l-84) and 20 per cent of sodium sulphate crystals is used.
(4) Acetic acid, chrome cross-dyeing
The composite specimen is entered into a bath containing 20 per cent of
sodium sulphate crystals and 5 per cent of acetic acid (30 per cent). The
temperature is raised to 98” + 2°C (208’ + 4’F) over a period of 30 minutes,
at which it is then maintained for a further 30 minutes, and then 2 per cent
of potassium dichromate is added and the temperature is maintained at
98” + 2°C for another 60 minutes.
(5) Sulphuric acid, chrome cross-dyeing
The specimen is entered into a liquor made up with 20 per cent ofsodium
sulphate crystals and 3 per cent of acetic acid. The temperature is brought
up to 98” + 2°C (208” + 4“F) over a period of 30 minutes, and after a further
30 minutes 2 per cent of sulphuric acid (sp gr 1.84) is added. Then after
another 15 minutes, 2 per cent of potassium dichromate is added. The
temperature is now kept at 98”_+2’C for 1 hour, after which the test is
complete.
Whichever method is used the samples are rinsed in cold running water,
dried at a heat not greater than 60°C ( 140°F), and the change of colour and
staining are assessed with the grey scales.
Fastness to mercerizing (I&O. Recommendation)
If the sample to be tested be fabric, a portion measuring 10 tin x 10 cm
is sewn round its edges to a piece of undyed bleached cotton of the same
size. The composite specimen is then fastened firmly, but without excessive
tension, to a frame with the coloured portion uppermost. Dyed yarn is
wound on to a rigid frame, without excessive tension, with the parallel
strands arranged closely together until an area of 10 cm x 10 cm is covered.
A piece of undyed bleached cotton cloth is then attached by sewing, leaving
the coloured yarn uppermost.
The specimen, on the frame, is immersed in a solution containing 300 g
ofsodium hydroxide (NaOH) per litre at 20” 5 2°C (68” + 4°F) for 5 minutes.
It is then rinsed, whilst still on the frame, with 1 litre of water at 70” f 2°C
(ISSo+ 4°F) for 1 minute, and finally in running cold water for 5 minutes.






























COLOUR 633
value, owing to the variations in the sensitivity of the eye. It is possible,
however, to replot the XYZ triangle in such a way that the chromaticity
chart is distorted, with the result that the area where the eye is most sensitive
becomes enlarged in relation to the green region. This rearrangement
gives the constant chromaticity chart shown in Fig. 26.22.
The MacAdam optical sensitivity chart shown in Fig. 26.21 does not
take luminence into account and Silberstein (Phil. Mug., 1946, 37, 126)
showed that when these ellipses were transferred to the three-dimensional
version of the chromaticity chart they would be ellipsoid as shown in
Fig. 26.23. In order that a really satisfactory universally applicable specification
for tolerances in colour matching can be established it is desirable
that these ellipsoids should be spherical. This, unfortunately, is not possible
and the nearest approach is the Simon and Goodwin system which
takes the form of about 100 different charts in which, by alteration of the
angle of the co-ordinates of the chromaticity chart the ellipses are*converted
to circles. The scale is such that each half-inch is equivalent to a
threshold value of discrimination Fig. 26.24 (SIMON AND GOODWIN,
Amer. Dyes Rep., 19.58, 105).
Standard illumination
The location of a colour in the chromaticity chart is dependent upon the
nature of the incident light. The C.I.E. has, therefore, specified three standard
illuminants. The first, standard illuminant A, or S,, is a gas-filled
tungsten lamp operating at 2850°K. The second is designated S, and is
equivalent to a yellower version of daylight, and consists of light from
source A filtered through two cells of colourless optical glass, each 1 cm
thick, containing respectively solutions of:
a n d
Copper sulphate (CuSO,.SH,O) 2.45 g per litre
Mannite WW’W 2.452 g per litre
Pyridine GW’J) 30 ml per litre
Cobalt ammonium sulphate (CoSO,(NH,),S0,.6H,O) 21.71 g per litre
Copper sulphate (CuS0,.5H,O) 16.11 g per litre
Sulphuric acid (sp gr 1.835) 10 ml per litre.
Finally the S, source is equivalent to light from the north sky in the
Northern Hemisphere or from the southern sky south of the equator. In
this case the light from source A is filtered through two l-cm cells containing
the following solutions respectively:
Copper sulphate 3.412 g per litre
Mannite 3.412 g per litre
Pyridine 30 ml per litre







COLOUR 641
prism, N, which can be rotated to equalize the relative intensities of the
halves of the field. From the angle through which the prism, N, has to be
turned, the proportion of the reflected spectral light selected by the
monochromator situated in front of the light source can be determined.
Self-recording spectrophotometers substitute a photoelectric cell for the
eye, and the electrical impulses can be amplified and converted into a continuous
plot on paper attached to a rotating drum. A simplified diagram of
the mode of working of the General Electric recording spectrophotometer
is shown in Fig. 26.33. Light from the lamp V passes through slit T into
Fig. 26.33 General Electric recording spectrophotometer
(Corwtesy of Ciba)
prism S, which throws the spectrum onto a mirror situated behind it. At
this stage a narrow wave-band is selected and reflected onto prism C,
where it is again diffracted to free it from any stray light other than that
required. The monochromatic rays are polarized in a Rochon prism E and
split into two beams with perpendicular planes of vibration by subsequent
passage through a Wollaston prism F. The position of the Rochon prism
will determine the relative intensities of the two beams emerging from the
Wollaston prism. The light rays next pass through a rotating polarizing
filter which causes oscillation between maximum and minimum intensity
in the two beams, such that one is at its highest value when the other
is at its lowest. The beams pass into an integrating sphere in such a manner
that one falls onto the sample H and the other onto a white magnesium
oxide surface I. The rays reflected from both surfaces are thoroughly mixed
up in the integrating sphere, and the resultant flux is picked up by a photoelectric
cell.










652 l)YlPercentages of caustic soda and caustic potash in caustic lyes--co&wed
S/WCi/iC N4’. NaOH, KzO, KOH,
,;wrtily per ceut per cettt per cmt per cent
1.2301
I.2414
1.2468
1 . 2 5 2 2
1 . 2 5 7 6
1 . 2 6 3 2
1.2687
1 . 2 7 4 3
1.28nO
1 . 2 8 5 7
;::‘2Wl;
1.3032
1 . 3 0 9 1
1 . 3 1 5 1
1 . 3 2 1 1
1 . 3 2 7 2
1 . 3 3 3 3
1 . 3 3 9 5
1 . 3 4 5 8
1 . 3 5 2 1
1 . 3 5 8 5
1.3649
1 . 3 7 1 4
1 . 3 7 8 0
1 . 3 8 4 6
1 3913
1 . 3 9 8 1
1 4 0 4 9
1 . 4 1 8 7
1 . 4 2 6 7
1 . 4 3 2 8
1 . 4 4 0 0
1 . 4 4 7 2
1 . 4 5 4 5
1.4619
1 . 4 6 9 4
1 . 4 7 6 9
1 . 4 8 4 5
K%i
1 . 5 0 7 9
1 . 5 1 5 8
1 . 5 2 3 8
1.5310
16.30 21aO
16.76 2 1 . 4 2
1 7 . 1 8 2 2 . 0 3
17.55 22.64
17.85 2 3 . 1 5
1 8 . 3 5 23.67
1 8 . 7 8 24-24
1 9 . 2 3 2 4 . 8 1
19.61 2 5 . 3 0
2oaI 2 5 . 8 0
20.40 26.31
2 0 . 8 0 2 6 . 8 3
2 1 . 0 2 2 7 . 3 1
2 1 . 5 5 2 7 . 8 9
2 1 . 9 5 2 8 . 3 1
22.35 2 8 . 8 3
2 2 . 6 7 2 9 . 3 8
2 3 . 2 0 2 9 . 9 3
2 3 . 7 5 30.57
2 4 . 2 0 31.22
2 4 . 6 8 3 1 . 8 5
25.17 3 2 . 4 7
2 5 . 6 8 3 3 . 0 8
2 6 . 1 2 3 3 . 6 9
2 6 . 6 1 3 4 . 3 8
2 7 . 1 0 3 4 . 9 6
2 7 . 6 0 35.65
2 8 . 1 0 3 6 . 2 5
28.58 36,86
2 9 . 5 6 3 8 . 1 3
30.08 3 8 . 8 0
3 0 . 5 4 3 9 . 3 9
3 1 . 0 0 3 9 . 9 9
31.50 40.75
3 2 . 1 0 4 1 . 4 1
3 2 . 6 5 4 2 . 1 2
3 3 . 2 0 4 2 . 8 3
3 3 . 8 0 4 3 . 6 6
3 4 . 4 0 4 4 . 3 8
3q 0s 4 5 . 2 7
3 5 . 5 0 46.15
3 6 . 3 0 4 6 . 8 6
3 6 . 9 0 4 7 . 6 0
3 7 . 4 5 48@1
38.00 49..02
2 1 . 5 0
21.90
2 2 . 3 0
2 2 . 7 0
23.10
2 3 . 5 0
2 3 . 8 5
2 4 . 2 0
24.60
2 5 . 0 0
25.40
2 5 . 8 0
2 6 . 2 5
2 6 . 7 0
2 7 . 1 0
2 7 . 5 0
27.90
2 8 . 3 0
28.80
2 9 . 3 0
2 9 . 7 5
30.20
%Z
31.40
31.80
3 2 . 2 5
3 2 . 7 0
3 3 . 1 0
3 3 . 9 5
3 4 . 4 0
3 4 . 9 0
35.40
3 5 . 9 5
3 6 . 5 0
37.00
3 7 . 5 0
38.00
38.50
39.05
3 9 . 6 0
40.15
40.60
41.50
4 1 . 5 0
;;:;;
2 6 . 5 0
27.00
27.50
$1:;
2 8 . 9 0
2 9 . 3 5
2 9 . 8 0
3 0 . 2 5
3 0 . 7 0
3 1 . 2 5
3 1 . 8 0
3 2 . 2 5
3 2 . 7 0
3 3 . 2 0
3 3 . 7 0
3 4 . 3 0
3 4 . 9 0
3540
3 5 . 9 0
3 6 . 4 0
36.90
3 7 . 3 5
3 7 . 8 0
3 8 . 3 5
3 8 . 9 0
3 9 4 0
4 0 . 4 0
4 0 . 9 0
4 1 . 5 0
42.10
42.75
4 3 . 4 0
44TIO
44.60
4 5 . 2 0
4 5 . 8 0
4 6 . 4 5
47.10
47.70
48.30
4 8 . 8 5
4 9 . 4 0
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION AND TABLES 633
Sulphuric acid
1~0000 : 0.0
pw$ ~ 2.8 1.4
I.0211 4.2
1.0284 5.7
1.0357 7.1
:Z%; 10.1 8.6
I.0584 11.7
1.0662 13.2
;:g:: 14.8
1.0902 :;:fj
I.0985 19.;
1.1069
::::z
;:::
24.8
I.1328
::::g
;;:;
30.2
1.1600
I.1694 :::;
1.1789 35.8
:::;g 39.7 37.7
:::y;: 41.7
1.2288 ::‘i
1.2393 47.9
1.2500 SO.0
1.2609 52.2
1.2719
:::;g
54.4
2;:;
1.3063 61.3
1.3182 63.6
1.3303 66.1
1.3426 68.5
I.3551
1.3679 :::;
I.3810
1.3942 ;g:;
::g; ;::;
;::g,” 87.1 90.0
::-gz 929 95.9
I.4948 99.0
;::;g 105.3 102.1
::::g g:;
1.5761 115.2
1.5934 118.7
1.6111
::g;;
;;X:;
1.6667 ::;::
::gg ::::;
1.7262 145.2
:::gy 149.4 153.7
1.7901 158.0
1.7957 , 159.1
::8”g 1 ;g::
::g;: 162.5 163.6
1.8239 ~ 164.8
I.8297 I.8354 ! :::::
22
2.08
3.13
4.21
5.28
6.37
7.45
8 55
9.66
IO-77
Il.89
13.01
1::::
16.38
17.53
18.71
19.89
11.07
22.25
23.43
:::g;
27.03
23.28
29.53
g:;;
33.33
:::;:
37.26
:;I;;
41.27
42.63
;;:;z
46.72
:;::;
SO.87
52.26
2:::
56.48
:;:3”;
60.75
62.18
;::f:
g:::
7::;:
72.75
74.36
:::g
79.43
81.30
83.34
85.66
86.33
87.04
87.81
g:;:
;y:;:
93.19
Temperatures of dry saturated steam
Decinormal solutions
Potassium permanganate
14.69
:i
40
2:
ig
100
110
120
:::
E
170
180
190
:z
220
230
240
250
260
:3
290
300
320
340
360
380
2:
2
480
500
600
iit
900
1000
1500
2000
100.0
108.9
121.3
::;::
:::t
155.5
160.1
164.3
168.2
171.7
175.1
178.3
181.3
184.1
186.9
189.4
191-9
19+3
196.7
198.9
:;::y
205.1
207.1
208.9
210.8
;;:::
217.7
;:;:;
;g:;
g::::
go’::
242.6
253.3
2;:::
279.3
286.3
314.6
336.0
212.0
228.0
250.3
267.2
;!g:;
302-S
311.9
::;::
3347
341.1
347.2
353,o
358.4
363.5
368.4
373.0
:gj
386.0
390.0
393.8
397.6
z::
408.1
411.4
t:::;
423.8
429.6
435.1
2::
450.5
455.2
459.8
464.3
‘g;:g
505ei
2:::;
:;;:;
636.8
3.161 g per litre
1 ml = 0.0016 g oxygen
= 0.0034 g hydrogen peroxide
S o d i u m t h i o s u l p h a t e
24.815 g of Na,S,0,.5H,O per litre
1 ml = 0.00355 g chlorine
Arsenious oxide
4.9455 g of As,O, per litre
1 ml = 0.00355 g chlorine
654 DYEING AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY Ok TEXTILE FIBRES
Hydrochloric acid
140 lm6Y 1 . 3 8 1.40 16.0 1 . 1 2 4 0 24.80 24.57 2 0 . 8 1 . 1 6 7 5 33.50 3 2 . 9 3
2m 1 .I)1 40 2.80 2.82 16.1 1.1248 24.96 24.73 2 0 . 9 I.1684 33.68 33.12
3.00 1.0211 4.22 4.25 1 6 . 2 1.12.56 25.12 24.90 21.0 1.1694 33.88 ’ 3 3 . 3 1
4.00 1.0284 5.68 5 . 6 9 1 6 . 3 1 . 1 2 6 5 25.30 25.06 21.1 1.1703 34.06 33.50
540 1.0357 7 . 1 4 7 . 1 5 ! 1 6 . 4 1.1274 25.4S : 25.23 2 1 . 2 I.1713 34.26 33.69
5 . 2 5 I.0375 7.50 7.52 1165 I.1283 25.66
j
25.39 2 1 . 3 1 . 1 7 2 2
I
34.44 I33.88
5.50 1.0394 7.88 7.89 1 6 . 6 1.1292 25.84 25.56 21.4 : 1.1732 134.64 3 4 . 0 7
5 . 7 5 1 . 0 4 1 3 8.26 8.26 ) i i 16.7 / 1 . 1 3 0 1 ! 26.02 i 2.5’72 i 21.5 1.1741 i 34.82 34.26
6.00 1.0432 8.64 ’ 8.64 ! 16% i 1.1310 26.20 i 25.89 : 2 1 . 6 1.1751 35.02 34.45
6.25 1+45U 9m ( ! 1 6 . 9 : 1.1319 : 26.38 126.05 ’ 2 1 . 7 ’ I.1760 ! 35.20 ~ 34.64
6.50 1.0469 9.38 i i7.0 1.1328 26.56 26.22 ~ 21.8 I.1770 35.40
6.75 1.0488 9.76
7aO 1 . 0 5 0 7 10.14
7 . 2 5 1 . 0 5 2 6 10.52
7.50 1.0545 10.90
7.75 ~1.0564 11.28
1.0584 li.68
1.0603 12.06 I
1.0623 12-46
1.0642 ) 12.84 i
8.00
n.25
8.50
8 . 7 5
9.00
9 . 2 5
9.50
9 . 7 5
10.00
10.25
10.50
10.75
11.00
11.25
11.50
1 1 . 7 5
12.00
1 2 . 2 5
12.50
1 2 . 7 5
13.00
1 3 . 2 5
13.50
13.75
14.00
14.25
14.50
1 4 . 7 5
15.00
15.25
I ;:;g:
) 1.0701
/ 1.0721
1.0741
1 . 0 7 6 1
I.0781
1 . 0 8 0 1
I.0821
1 . 0 8 4 1
1 . 0 8 6 1
1 . 0 8 8 1
1.0902
::gg
::g
I.1006
1.1027
::g;
1.1090
1 . 1 1 1 1
I.1132
1.1154
15.22
15.62
16.02
16.42
16.82
17.22
17.62
IS.04
1844
18.86
19.28
19.70
20.12
20.54
20.96
21.38
21.80
22.22
9.02
9.40
9 . 7 8
1 0 . 1 7
10.55
1 0 . 9 4
1 1 . 3 2
1 1 . 7 1
1 2 . 0 9
12.48
12.87
13.26
1 3 . 6 5
1 4 . 0 4
14.43
1 4 . 8 3
IS.22
15.62
1 6 . 0 1
1 6 . 4 1
1 6 . 8 1
1 7 . 2 1
17.61
18.01
18.41
18.82
19.22
19-63
20.04
20.45
20.86
21.27
21.68
22.09
17.1
1 7 . 2
17.3
1 7 . 4
1.1336 26.72
I.1345 26.90
1.1354 I 27.08
1.1363 I ;;:P
26.39 21.9 1.1779
26.56 22.0 I 1.1789
2 6 . 7 3 ~22.1 ’ 1 . 1 7 9 8
jj.90 1 2”
27.07 1 21-5 $i:!:
27.24 ’ 22.4 : 1.1827
35.58
35.78
35.96
1 1.1372 i i . 5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
18.0
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
1 8 . 6
1 8 . 7
18.8
1 8 . 9
19.0
19.1
1 9 . 2
19.3.
19.4
19.5
1 9 . 6
1 9 . 7
1 9 . 8
1 9 . 9
3 4 . 8 3
35.02
3 5 . 2 1
35,40
35.59
1 . 1 3 8 1
1.1390
1.1399
1~14US
1.1417
1.1426
I.1435
1.1444
1.1453
1.1462
1 . 1 4 7 1
I*1480
1.1489
1.1498
1.1508
1.1517
1.1526
1.1535
1~1544
27.62
27.80
27.98
28.16
28.34
28.52
28.70
28.88
29.06
28.44 , 23.1 1.1895
2 8 . 6 1 , 23.2 1.1904
28.78 ) 23.3 1.1914
28.95 ( 23.4
i
1.1924
2 9 . 1 3 ’ 2 3 . 5
1
1.1934
29.30 ) 23.6
29.48 ! 2 3 . 7
(
1
I.1944
1 . 1 9 5 3
29.65 23.8
( 2 3 . 9
i 1 . 1 9 6 3
2 9 . 8 3 1 . 1 9 7 3
30.00 ) 24.0 11 . 1 9 8 3
30.18 1 24.1 1.1993
20.0
20.1
1.1554
1.1563
1.1571
1~1581
1.1590
1.1600
1.1609
29.24
29.42
29.60
29.78
29.96
30.16
30.34
30.52
30.70
30.88 30.35 24.2 1.2003
3 0 . 5 3 2 4 . 3 11.2013
30,71
,
24,4 1 . 2 0 2 3
30.90
t
24.5
/
1.2033
31.08 2 4 . 6
)
1.2043
20.2 1.1619 1;;:g
22.64 22.50 2 0 . 3 1.1628 32.56
36.16
36.34
36.54
36.72
36.92
37.12
37.32
37.50
37.70
37.90
38.08
38.28
38.48
38.68
38.88
39.06
39.26
39.46
39.66
39.86
40.06
40.26
40.46
40.66
40.86
41.06
41.26
41.46
41.66
41.86
42.06
42.28
42.48
42.68
31.27
/
2 4 . 7
1
I.2053
31.45 24.8
3 1.64 ’ 24.9 ,
1.2063
1 . 2 0 7 3
31.82 125.0 1.2083
3 2 . 0 1 ~25.1 1 . 2 0 9 3
32.19 ’
)
2 5 . 2 1.2103
32.38 25.3 1.2114
32.56 i 25.4 1.2124
32.75 i 25.5 1.2134
35.78
35.97
36.16
36.35
36.54
3 6 . 7 3
3 6 . 9 3
37.14
37.36
37.58
37.80
3 8 . 0 3
38.26
38.49
38.72
38.95
39.18
39.41
39.64
39.86
40.09
40.32
4-05.5
40.78
41 .Ol
41.24
4 1 . 4 8
41.72
4 1 . 9 9
42.30
42.64
43.01
4340
1.1176
15.50 1.1197
15.75 I.1219
23.08 122.92 20.4 I.1637 ’ 32.74
23.52 23.33 20.5 1.1647 32.94
23.94 ’ 23.75 20.6 I.1656 33.12
24.38 24.16 20.7 1.1666 33.32
Allowance for temperature
loo-1.5O B&-l/40” BC or 0.0002 sp gr for 1°F
15”-22O B&--1/30° Be or 0.0003 ,, 9, IoF
22O-25=’ Be-l/2S” BB or 0.00035 ,, ,. l0F






Index of Names
Abbott, 498, 552
Adam, 190
Adkins, 14
Aickin, 202
Alderson, 643
Alexander, 87, 90, 91, 261, 273, 275, 276,
279, 281, 319, 401
Ardron, 502
Armstrong, 304
Astbury, 17, 86, 87
Baddiley, 507
Bader, 496
Badische. 9
Bayer, li
Bainbridge, 271
Baldwin, 280
Barr, 278, 279, 280
Bate, 515
Beal, 401
Beckmann. 138. 373
Bell, 87, 165, 286
Bellhouse, 401
Bernberg, 112
Bevan, 114, 126
Bird, 509, 510
Birtwell, 229
Bleachers’ Association, 27s
Hahn, 10, 439. 480
Bohnert, 537, 538
Booker, 307, 309
B&tiger, 8, 405
Boulton, 328, 415
BBwe, 266
l3owman, 78, 317
Bradlw 482 605
&agg;i7 ’
Braurt, 46
Brown, 143, 611, 632
I~ulow, 508
Bury, 306
B u t t e r w o r t h , 4 2 8
Capp, 280
Carter, 275, 281
Carothers, 131, 132, 140
Chaikin, 216
Chamberlain, 261, 264, 5
Chardonnet, 109, 110
Cheetham, 340
Chesner, 205, 236
Chibnall, 43
Ciba, 153
Clayton, 271, 603, 606
Clegg, 386
Clibbens, 50, 53, 55, 229
13
Coates, 309
Coffey, 520
Collie, 189
Collins, 577, 579
Cook, 552
cooper, 95
Corey, 88
Co&e, 400
cox, 497
Crick, 88
Cross, 114, 126
Crowder, 245, 254
Cunliffe, 275, 293
Darawulla, 484
Davis, 200, 299
Debye, 29
Denham, 104
Denyer, 568
Derbyshire, 325, 386, 389
Derrett-Smith, 605
Derry, 231
Dickey, 513
Dickinson, 401
Dickson, 104, 141, 142
Donnan! 60, 194
Dupaissls, 112
Du Pont, 131, 145
Duveen, 535
Earland, 281
Edwards, 271, 288
Elliott, 276, 611
E16d, 94
Elsworth, 250, 288
Ender, 439
Evans, 470
Everest, 460, 462
Fairhead, 264
Fargher, 43
Farrington, 278
Farrow, 5 3
Fern, 525
Ferney, 277
F&z-David, 425, 529
Fitzsimmons, 493
Flatters, 71
Foulds, 289
Fowler, 528, 534
Fox, 91, 482, 483, 502
Freudenberg, 46, 73
Freundlich, 389, 410
Frick,, 298
Frost! 535
Fuggltt, 388
661
662
Garrett, 105
Garvie, 323
Geake, 50, 53
Giles, 410
Glenz, 373
gm$z ;3”35
GnxbA 3253803,;431
Green, 406; 420, 506, 603
Greisheim Elektron A. G., 445
Griess, 7
Griffiths, 323
Gustav, 388
Guthrie, 296, 629, 630
Gutmann, 292
Hadfield, 554
Hagenbach, 435
Hall, 276, 277
Hamer, 170, 312
Harbome, 195
Harris, 250, 387, 388
Hassan, 410
Haworth, 45
Hayes, 613
Hearle, 20
Heighway-Bury, 297
Helmholtz, 616
Hendry, 162, 166
Hewitt, 105
Hilger and Watts, 636
Hirst, 46, 90
Hodgson, 408
Hoflinan, 5
Holland Ellis, 10, 507
Hooke, 109
Horn, 91
Horsfall, 487
Houtz, 14
Howard, 260
Huckel, 458
Hudson, 87, 90, 91, 275, 319
:.
Irvine, 46
Jackson, 170
Jones, 91
Jordinson, 617
KekulC, 7
King, 195
Klingsberg, 600, 611
Knight, 386
gysreF52 491
Kra&isch, 584, 585
Lalor, 433
La&a, 9
Latraille, 270
Laue, 16
Laurie, 487
Lawrence, 194
Lead, 409, 593
Lees, 288
INDEX
4
*
OF NAMES
Lenin, 400, 412,415, 416, 577, 579
Leuchs, 279
Liebermann, 7, 303,431
Lightfoot, 7
Lilienfeld, 121
Lipson, 260, 277
L.ster, 382
Little, 228
Lodge, 470
Loewe, 541
Lowe, 62
Lutzel, 541
McAdam, 630, 632, 633
McBain, 195
McLaren, 588, 592, 593,
Madaras, 299
Mark, 17
Manchester, 509
Marsden, 408
Marsh, 289, 291, 293
Martin, 261, 263, 434
Mather and Platt, 210
Matter, 529
Medlock, 6
Meggy, 321
Meister Lucius and Brun
Mellor. 517. 518
Menkart, 261, 262, 263
Mercer. 62. 266
Meunier, 270, 278
Meyer, 17, 256, 407, 508
Middlebrook. 278
Midgelow, 611
Miles, 126
Minshall, 617
.Mittlemann, 261
Moilliet, 189
Morton Sundour. 496
Muller, 439 ’
Myerson, 27
Oliver, 629, 630
Olpin, 514, 518, 519
Owen, 201
Paine, 409
Palmer, 202
Parker, 278
Pamell, 2
Partridge, 275
Pasteur, 99
Patel, 493
Patterson, 172
Pauling, 88
Pauly, 112, 287
Perkin, 5, 7, 269,
Perryman, 392
431, 515
595., 617
9
INDEX OF NAMES
Peters, 401,407,409,483, 548, 551
Pfeil, 411
Phillips, 278, 286
Pliny, 1
Preston, 46, 525, 528, 534
Priestman, 213
Probert, 43
Rao, 484, 610
Rattee, 440, 441
Raynes, 273, 274
Read H&day, 9
Reading, 328, 415
Reeves, 296
Reid, 297, 298
Rettie, 613
Rice, 613, 614
Rich, 88
Richardson, 497
Ridge, 55, 228, 229
Rimington, 287
Ringel, 91
Ritter, 466
khnss~ 263
Row;, 460, 491
Ryan, 169
Sagar, 400
Samson, 216
Sandmeyer, 435
Saunders, 506
Saunderson, 286
Schetty, 441
Schirm, 409
Schofield, 493
Schuster, 508
Schutzenburger, 126
Schwartzenbach, 178
Schweitzer, 112
Shah, 610
Sharmg, 554
Shorter, 262
Silberstein, 633
Simon, 633
Skelly, 244, 245
Smith, 250
Speakman, 90, 92, 95, 128, 260, 261, 262,
270,278,279,280,281, 386,387,438
Speke, 502
Sramek, 611, 612
Stacey, 401
Stanford, 128
Ststham, 258
Steinhart, 387, 388
Stevens, 401, 438
Stevenson, 273, 274, 275
Stock, 613, 614
Stott, 95, 260, 387
Straw, 196
Stubbs, 278
Summersgill, 176
Sumner, 409,483, 492
Sunder, 496
Swan, 109
663
Taylor, 568
Telesz, 611
Thiele, 112
Thomson, 482
Thurston, 170
Tilak, 484
Titterington, 613
Tootal Broadhurst Lee, 289
Topham, 117
Townend, 552
Trotman, 105,267,270, 278, 279, 285, 286
Turner, 57, 486
Vaeck, 55
Venkataraman, 611
Verguin, 6
Vickers, 412, 415
Vic@taff, 383, 388, 412, 415, 492, 523,
Vidal, 9, 463
Van Baeyer, 10
Wallwark, 460, 462, 515
Ward, 410
Waters, 492, 508
Weaver, 298
Whew& 286
Whinfielh, 141, 142
White, 245
Whittaker. 416
Wiltshirq’456, 489, 497
Witt, 303
Wolfram, 28
Wood, 2, 277,. 286, 289, 297, 519
Wool Industrres Research Association,
270. 271
Worshipful Company of Dyers, 2
Wright, 636
Young, 616
Zahn, 94
Zanker, 470
Zerweck, 466
Ziegler, 13, 380
Zimm, 27
Zitscher, 9, 447
79,
hdex of Dyestuffs
\
Acilan Brilliant Blue FFR, 590
Aliaarin, 430
Alizarine Light Blue 4GL, 590
- - Red R, 381
- Yellow 2G, 435
Alkali Blue. 6
Aniline Black, 7
Artisil Brilliant Rose SBP, 510
- Direct Blue ERT, 513
- - - BSQ, 550
- - Brown H, 513
- - Violet 2RP, 559
- - Yellow G, 510
Auramine, 372
Azo Geranine 2G, 380, 552
Benzo Para Deep Brown G, 424
Benzopurpurine 4B, 408
- lOB, 419
- test for mercerization, 64
Benzo Viscose Blue 4GFL, 415
Bismarck Brown, 8, 370
Bleu de Lyons, 6, 378
Caledon Blue GCP, 577
- - RC, 481, 489,494
- - XRC, 490
- Brilliant Orange 6R, 492, 577
- - Purple 4RP, 490
- - Red 3B, 492, 577
- - Violet 3BS, 494
- - - R, 494, 566, 577
- Brown R, 492, 578
- Dark Blue G, 577
- - - BMS, 494
- - Brown 2G, 578
- - - 6R, 578
- - - 4RS, 494
- Gold Orange 3G, 577
- Golden Yellow GK, 566
- Green 7G, 577
- Grey MS, 494
-Jade Green 3B, 482, 577
- - - XN, 494, 577
- Olive Green B, 577
- Orange 2RT, 482
- Pink RL, 577
- Printing Yellow 6G, 577
- Red Violet 2RN, 577
- Yellow 4G, 577
- Yellow SG, 492,494
Carbide Black ER, 424
Carbolan Blue B, 575
- Crimson 3B, 575
- Green G, 575
Carbolan Yellow R, 575
Celanthrene Brilliant Blue FFS, 514
Celhton Fast Yellow RRA/CF, 510
Chloramine Red B, 381
- Yellow 2G, 419
Chlorantine Fast Black 2G, 425
- - Blue 8G, 529
- - Green lOGL, 529
- - Violet ZRLL, 419
- - Yellow BS, 417
- - - RLSW, 419
Chlorazol Black BH, 413, 423
- - GF, 419
- - JH, 423
- - LF, 425
- Brown GM, 406
- Fast Helio 2RK, 413
- - Orange R, 419
- - - TR, 423, 424
- Rose BS, 417
- Sky Blue FF, 412
- Yellow G, 419
- - 6G, 414
Chrome Orange R, 436
- mellow, 5
Chrysoidene, 8
Chrysophemne, 412, 413
Ciba Orange R, 492
Cibacet Blue BR, 510
Cibacet Diazo Black B, 519
- Orange 2R, 507, 510
- Red 3B, 559
- Rubine R, 510, 513
- Scarlet BRN, 550
- Yellow GBA, 550
- - 4GC, 513
Cibacron Black RP, 530
- Brilliant Blue C4GP, 530
- Turquoise Blue G, 530
Cibanone Red 4B, 494
- Yellow G, 492
Cibantine Brown BR, 497
Cloth Red 2B. 380
Congo Red, 8,; 405
Cooy;;ie Brrlliant Blue R, 381,
__ _
- Fast Grey G, 381
- Green T, 381
- Navy Blue G, 381
- Turquoise Blue 3G, 381
- Violet 2R, 379
Copper Blue G, 427
Coprantex B, 426
Coprantine Grey G, 427
Cuprofix Dyes, 426
- Navy Blue CGBL, 427
664
INDEX OF DYESTUFFS 665
Cuprophenyl Navy Blue BL, 427
Crystal Violet, 7, 317, 369
Diamond Black F, 11
Dianisidine Blue, 445
D&amine Blue G, 423
D&amine Fast Green GL, 423
Diazo Brilliant Orange GR, 415
- Brown 3RNA.CF, 405
- Fast Yellow 3GLL, 423
Diazophenyl Red LN, 423
Diphenyl Blue SB, 414
- Brown CB, 414
- Chrysoine, 406
- Fast Red SBL, 419.
- Orange GG, A24
-- Red BS, 413, 414
Direct Black E, 425
- Blue BT, 417
- Fast Scarlet 3BS, 414
- - Yellow 3G, 413
- Red 0,424
Disperse Yellow 3G, 510
Dispersal Black B, 518
- Brilliant Blue CB, 569
- Diazo Black B, 550, 567
- Fast Orange A, 510
---B, 510
- - - G, 550, 567, 569
- - Red R, 510
- - Scarlet B, 565
- - Yellow A, 513, 569
- - - G, 569
Disulphine Blue V, 383
Duranol Blue G, 559
- - 2G, 510
- - Green B, 569
- Brilliant Blue CB, 507, 513
- - Violet BR, 507
- Red 2B, 569
- - GN, 513
- Violet RN, 510
Durazol Blue 8G, 407
- Red 2B, 414
Durindone Red B, 566
- Scarlet Y, 566
Eastman Fast Blue GFL, 514
Eclipse Brilliant ‘Blue 2RL, 467
Eriochrome Azurole B, 436
- Black T, 435, 436
Fast Blue BB Base, 448
- Bordeaux BD Base, 448
- Orange G Base, 448
-Red B Base, 448
-Red G Base, 121
- Red GL Base, 448
- Salts, Coupling, 458
- Scarlet GG Base, 448
- -LG Bese, 448
- - VD Base, 448
Flavanthrone, 481
Fuchsine, 6
.
H&don Pink R, 121
Hof&xm Violet, 7
Immedial Black FF, 463
- Orange C, 465
- Yellow GG, 464
Indanthrene Blue, 10
- - CG, 481
- - R C , 4 9 2
- - RS, 121,480
- Golden Orange G, 481
- Khaki, 483
- Yellow FFRK, 483
- Yellow G, 481
Indigo, 121, 492
- Carmine, 476
Indigosol Blue AGC, 590
Indirubin, 477
Ionamine Black AS. 507
’ - Red K, 507
lrgalan Brown Violet DL, 442
- Grey BL, 401
Kiton Blue A, 379
- Yellow S, 381
Lissamine Fast Yellow 2G, 399, 552
- Flavine FF, 398, 399
- Green SF. 379
- Red 7BP$ 552
- Rhodamine B, 378, 379
- Rhodamine G, 379
Lyons Black, 435
Magenta, 6, 593
Malachite Green, 368
Mauveine, 370
Meldola Blue, 369
Merantine Blue, 379
Methyl Green, 368, 369
Methyl Violet, 7
Methylene Blue, 369, 379
Methylene Violet, 370
Naphthalene Black D, 381
- Scarlet 4R, 400
Naphtha1 Orange G, 399
- Yellow, 379
Neocotone Dyes, 459
Neolan Blue B, 439
- - FR, 585
‘- - 2R, 440, 585
- Pink BA, 440
-Red 3B, 440
- - BRE, 585
- - REG, 585
- Salt P, 440
- Violet 3R, 440
- Yellow BE, 585
- - RE, 585
- - G, 440
Neutral Red, 369
New Magenta, 369
- Methylene Blue, 369
Nile Blue, 369
Miti INDEX OF DYESTUFFS
Orncka Chtomc Yellow ME, 436
Orange II, 8, 378
Palatine Fast Salt 0, 440
- Blue GGN, 439
Para Red,, 9, 444
Pararosandine, 368, 369
Perlon Fast Orange RRS, 442
Phthalocyanine Blue, 121
- Green, 121
Polar Brilliant Blue AW, 381
- - Red BN, 575
- - Red G, 575
Primuline, 406, 420
Procilan Dark Blue RS, 543
- Grey BRS, 543
- Red GS, 543
- Yellow 2RS, 543
Procion Blue M-3GS, 527, 534, 578
- Brilliant Blue H-SG, 530, 531
- - - H-7G, 530
- - - M-R, 527, 531, 534, 578
- - Orange M-G, 531
- - Red M-2B, 534, 578
- - - M-SB, 534, 578
- - Yellow M-4G, 527
- - - M-6G, 530, 534
Procion Orange M-GS, 578
- Red M-2B, 531
- - M-SB, 531
- - M-G, 527
- - Brown M-4R, 527
- Rubine M-B, 534
- Scarlet M-G, 531, 535, 578
- - H-R, 530
- Yellow H-A, 532
- - H-SG, 532
- - M-GR, 531, 535
- - M-6G, 531, 532
- - M-R, 524, 532, 534, 578
- - M-4R, 531
Pyrogene Blue V, 466
- Deep Black B, 466
- Orange 0, 469
- Yellow Brown RS, 467
Safranine, 370
Sandothrene Golden Yellow NRK, 492
- Red N4B, 492
Setacyl Blue 2GS, 550
- Orange GR, 559
- Scarlet B, 510
- Violet R, 513
- Yellow ZGNE, 550
Sirius Super Green BTL, 426
Solacet Fast Rubine 3BS, 550
Solacct Fast Violet 4RS, 550
- Violet BS, 550
Solar Brilliant Blue A, 417
- Orange 4GA, 419
- Red 2BL. 414
- Violet 3R, 414
- Yellow R, 419
--2R,415
Soledon Blue 4RC, 590
- Brilliant Purple 2R, 497
- Indigo LL, 497
Solochrome Fiavine G, 436
- Orange M, 43.5
- Red B, 436
- Red D, 400
Solophenyl Brilliant Blue BL, 419
- Fast Blue Green BL, 419
- Yellow BRL, 414
- - GFL, 414
Solway Blue B, 381, 382
- - BN, 552, 590
-*Green G, 383
Sulphonine Red 3B, 38i
Suprarnine Blue EG, 590
Tartrazine, 380, 552
Thioindigo, 475, 480
Thional Dark Blue B, 469
- - - V, 469
- Red Brown SR, 466, 467
- Yellow G, 466
- Yellow 2G, 466, 469
Thionol Bordeaux BR, 466, 469
- Dark Brown B, 467
- Direct Blue RLS, 467
- Navy Blue RM, 469
- Orange R, 466
- Sky blue 6B, 469
- Yellow YN, 467
Tinon Golden Yellow GR, 492
Trisulphon Brown B, 419
- Fast Blue B, 413
- Violet B, 413
- Violet ZB, 419
Turkey Red, 431
Tyrian Purple, 1, 3, 9, 474
Victoria Blue RB, 593
Vidal Black, 463, 470
Violet Imperial, 6
Viscolan Black B, 381
Xylem Blue VS, 379
- Fast Green A, 379
- Light Yellow ZGL, 381
- Red B, 379
General Index
Acetate dyes, 506
Acetic acid, sp. gr. and concentrations, 655
Achromats, 617
Acid dyes! 11, 378 et seq.
adsorptron isotherms, 387
anthraquinone, 381
application, 390 et seq.
-, with ammonium salts, 391
- to polyacrylonitriles, 572
-to polyamides, 551
- to silk, 404
-to wool, 3 9 9
bisazo, 380
effect of acids , 382
- of Glauber’s salt, 383
- of temperature, 390
function of acid, 388
monazo, 380
phthalocyanine, 381
pyrazolone, 380
shrink resistance and fastness, 399
stripping, 398
structure and fastness, 386
theory of dyeing, 387 et sq.
triphenylmethane, 379
wash fastness, 384
Acid Magenta, 378
Acid mordant dyes, 435
application, 436
- to polyamides, 554
correction of shade, 437
fastness,, 436
Acids, actron on cotton, 58
Acrilan, 148
Acrylonitrile, 145
polymerization, 145
preparation, 146
properties, 146
vinyl chloride co-polymers, 15 1
Activatiqn energy., 303
Addition polymerization, 15
Additive primaries, 616
Adipamide, 133
-, from butadiene, 133
-, from furfuraldehyde, 133
Adipic acid, 131
Adiponitrile, 133
Adsorption isotherms, 315 et seq.
- isotherm for Solway Blue B, 387
- - - Chrysophenine G, 411
Aerosol MA, 1 9 8 .
Aesculet!n, 255
Aesculin, 255
Afterchrome acid dyes, 11
Agilon, 155
Agrinine, 85
Alanine, 85
Albatex WS, 552
Alginate yarns, 128
- -, removal, 220
- -! uses, 129
Algimc acid, 128
Ahzarin, 2,4
-, dyemg, 431
-, properties, 431
-, synthesis, 431
Alkali cellulose, 59
- solubility test, 250
Aluminium hydroxide, 162
Aluminoferric, 162
Aminoanthraquinone, 10
Aminocoumarins, a57
N-2-aminopiperazine, 138
w-Amino-undecanoic acid, 139
Ammonia, sp. gr. and concentrations, 656
Amorphous regions, 20
Analysis of scoured wool, 219
Angora, 98
Anhydrocarboxyglycine, 280
Aniline, 6
Animal fibres, 74 et seq.
Anion exchange resin, 175
Anomaloscope, 618
Anomalous fading, 595
Anthranilic acid, 478
Anthraquinone, 475
- vat dyes, 475
Anthemea mylitta, 99, 107
-pernyi, 99, 107
- yama-mar, 107
Anthrone, 489.
Antidiazotate, 449
Anti-mildew agents, 301
Antimony oxide flame resist finish, 298
A.O./H.R.R. test for colour vision, 618
A.P.O., 298
Ardil, 219
Artisil dyes? 507
Aspartic actd, 85
Astralene C, 156
tstralon C, 156
Atactic polymers, 14
Atmosphere, standard, 30
Attacw ricini, 107
Autoclave heat setting, 548
Automatic process control, 365
Autosetter, 548
Auxochromes, 303
Available chlorine estimation, 224, 268
Azine dyes, 369
Azo chromophore, 313
Azo basic dyes, 370
667
Xzoic coloum, application, 455
Azoic dyes. 4, 444 et seq.
- -, applicdtion, 450 et seq.
- - -to cellulose acetate, 515
- -: --protein to libres, 4 6 0
- -, blinding, 460
- -, coupling. 457
- -, stripping, 462
- -, washing off, 459
Back tanning, 554
Bake&, 15
Banlon, 155
Barium peroxide, 232
Basazol dyes, 542
Base-exchange materials, 173
- - -, synthetic, 173
- - softeners, 173
- -softening, 172 et seq.
Basic dyes, 368
action of reducing agents, 373
anthraquinone, 3 7 0
application to celluloses, 376
- - polyacrylonitriles, 371
- -silk, 374 et seq.
- - wool, 376
assistants, 374
back tanning, 375
classification, 368 et seq.
dissolving, 374
light fastness, 372
methine, 371
nature of affinity, 373
polyactylonitriles, 570
properties, 371 et seq.
synthetic mordants, 377
tannic acid mordant, 373
wash fastness, 372
Bast fibres, 67
Bathochromic effect, 3 13
Bave, 100
Beater tubs, 217
1 : 9-Benzanthrene, 482
Benzoquinone, 262
Benzoyl peroxide, 13
Benzyl alcohol, 556
Bifunctional monomers, 22
Biochemical oxygen demand, 180
Blancophor R, 256
- WT, 257
Bleachmg, continuous, 243 et seq.
-, hypochlorites, effects of ternpet
2 3 1
- powder, available chlorine , 222
- -, chemical constitution, 222
- -, manufacture, 222
- - solution, preparation, 225
- - -, sp. gr., 226
- man-made fibres, 253 et seq.
- silk, 253
- with hypochlorires, 227 et seq.
- wool, 248
Block co-polymers, 14
Boekmeria,~ 69
- termcissmta, 69
Boiler corrosion, 166
Hoilcr scale. 165
-- --- prevention, 166
Imkara, 9%
Boil, 38
Bonibyx mari, 99, 107
BGwe machine, 266
Bragg’s law, 1X
Brazil wood, 4
Brenthamine fast hluc II base, 567
Rrenthol A T , 450
- DA, 450
1 I-Bromoundecanoic acid, ‘139
Bulking false twist, 154
- stuffing box, 155
- thermoplastic yams, 1.54 ct seq.
Burrs,, 82
Butadtene, 133
Butanediol, 152
Calcium alginate. 128
Calcium hypochlorite reactions, 223
Calgon, 17.5
Camhium, 67
Camieau effect, 441
Cannabis Saticla, 70
Caprolactam, 138
Carbon, atomic orbitals, 310
Carbon black, 121
Carbonization of wool, 97
Carboxyl groups in cellulose, estimation, 53
Carnaubyl alcohol, 184
Carroting, 263
Cartkamus Tinctotius, 2
Casein yarns, 129
Cashmere, 98
Castor oil, 183
Cation active substances, 200
Cationic dyes, 368
- - for polyacrylonitriles, 570
Cationic fixing agents, 427
Causticpotash,sp.gr.andconcentration,651
Caustic soda, sp. gr. and concentration, 651
Celcon automatic dye control, 366
Cellit fast dyes, 506
Celliton dyes, 507
Cellobiose, 46
Cellulose II, 60
Cellulose
acid tendering, 58
action of formaldehyde, 293
- - nitric acid, 59
2lture, chemical constitution, 44
cross-linking, 292 et seq.
flame resist finish, 294
fluidity test, 53
general properties, 44
hydrates, 44
hydrogep bonds, 48
molecular weight, 48
nitrate, 109
phosphoric acid esters, 296
polyamide mixtures, dyeing, 579
structural formula, 47
triacetate, 126, 130
-, dyeing, 517
xanthic acid, 114
GENERAL INDEX 669
Cellulosr acctatc, application of azoic dyes,
il ‘I
Constant chromaticity chart, 630
Contact angie, 191
Continuous alkali boiling, 210
- bleaching, 243 et seq.
- filaments, 12
Co-ordinate bonds, 439
Copper number, 50
Coprantine dyes, 426
Co+rhorw, 72
- capsularis, 72
- olitoriw, 72
C$rz;t cz&ition weight, 32
CLtex: wool, 77
Cotton, 37 et seq.
acid tendering, prevention, 58
action of acids, 58
- - alkalis, 59
- - heat, 57
- - micro-organisms, 58
- - water, 57
American, 41
China, 42
classification, 41
convolutions, 40
cultivation, 38
dead fibres, 40
effect of Schweitzer’s reagent , 40
E g y p t i a n , 4 1
fibre, unripe, 38
growth of mildew, 58
immunized, 65
impurities, 42
Indian, 42
mineral matter, 44
natural history, 37
peroxide bleaching, 434 et seq.
regenerated cellulose mixture, dyeing,
579
scouring, 203 et seq.
Sea Island, 41
solvent scouring, 210, 212
South American, 41
steeping, 204
structure, 39
Cotton-way dyeing, 574
Counts of yarns, 659
Coupling components, affinities, 453
- -, dissolving, 451
- -, standing baths, 453
Couttelle, 148
Courtrai flax, 66
Covalent bonds,, 320
Crease resist fimshes, 288 et seq.
Crease shedding, 291
Crimp rigidity, 156
Crimped thermoplastic yarns, 154 et seq.
Crimplene, 156
Crystalline regions, 20
Crystallinity, determination, 21, 22
Cuprammonium rayon, 112
Cupri-ethylenediamine, 105
Cuproiix dyes, 426
Cuprophenyl dyes, 426
Cyanamide, 280
Cyanine dyes, resonance, 307
. .
- , dyeinp, 12% 506 et seq.
- -, ~- black, 512
- -, rayon manufacture, 127 et seq.
- -, tensile strength, 127
- - and cellulose mixtures, dyeing, 579
- - rayon, 126
Cellulosic fibres, c~allinity, 22
Cellutvl dyes, 506
Centri‘fugal spinning box, 117
Centrigrade-Fahrenheit conversion, 649
Ceryl alcohol, 43, 184
Cetyl alcohol, 101
Chelation, 176
Chemical oxygen demand, 180
Chemical potential, 303
Chlorine dioxide! 240
Chlorine gas, actIon on wool, 270
Cholesterol. 83
Chromaticity chart, 624
- co-ordinates, tabulated, 625
- planes, 629
Chromatographic separation of dyes, 607
et seq.
Chromatography, 606
-, partition, 608, 610
-, thin layer, 613
-, vat dyes. 610
Chromium alpinate, 128
Chromium co-ordinate compounds, 430
-, co-ordination with alizarin, 430
Chromophores, 303, 315
Cihacet dyes, 507
C.L.E. colour definition, 624
Clrrasol OI>, 282
Classification of fibres, 35
Cloud point, 202
Coccus cacti, 4, 432
Cochineal, 4, 432
cocoon, 100
Coeficient of diffusion, 323
Cohesive force. 26
Colorimcter, photoelectric, 636
Colour, 615 et seq.
-, anomaloscope test, 6 1 8
--, A.O./H.R.R. test, 618
-, ellipsoids, 632
-, luminosity, 628
-, perception testing, 617
-, quinonoid theorv, 305
-, space, three dimensional, 629
-, vision, Farnsworth test, 618
-. -. Giles-Archer test. 618
Cdlou;andchetnicaIconstitution,3o3 etseq.
- distribution co-eficients. 628 - measurement, 6 3 4
- saturstion, 616, 627
triangle, 622
CohIIC . I LO our matching computer, 646
Computer flow diagram, 645
Condensation polymerization, 1 5
Condition weight, 32
- - determination, 33
Conjugation and colour, 312
- - - , effect on energy levels, 313
070 Gl%‘EHAL INDEX
Cganuric chloride, 10, 520
Cyclohexane, 132
Cyclohexznol, 132
Cyclohcxanone, 132
Cysteic acid, 92
Cystine, 85
Cystine linkages, 24,‘89
Cystine links, action of alkali,, 91
- -, - - hydrogen peroxIde, 91
- -, - - sodium hisulphite, 91
Dacron, 141
D.D.T., 3 0 0
Decinormal solutions, 653
Deep well water, 160
Defective colour vision, 617
Degeneracy, 309
Degree of polymerization, 29
Dehydrothio-toluidine, 464
Dermis, 74
D&zing, 204
Detergency, measurement, 195
theory, 193 et seq.
ztergents, synthetic, 197
Deuteranopes, 617 _ _
Uew rettmg, 67
D.F.E., 2 6 0
-, Lipson and Howard method, 261
- violin bow method, 260 ;
- and shrinkage, 261
Diamino-stilbene disulphonic acid, 256
Diammonium adipate, 133
Diastase, 204
Diazoic acid, 449
Diazonium salts, structure, 8
Diazo reaction, 449
Dibenzanthrone, 482
Dicbloroisocyanuric acid, 274
1 : 3-Dichloro-2-propanol, cross links, 291
Diethanolamine, 203
Diethylene glycol diacetate, 519
Differential calorimeter, 638
2 : 2-Dihydroxyazobenzene, 441
3 : 4-Dihydroxyphenylpropane, 73
2 : S-Dimethoxy-phenyldiazoniumchloride,
450
Dimethyl aniline, 7
- diaminoazobenzene, 7
- formamide, 158
Dimethylol cyclic ethylene urea, 290
- ethylene urea, 291
- methyl triazone, 290
- urea, 290
Diphenyl, 561
Direct dyes, 8, 405 et seq.
after treatment , 420
application, 418 et seq.
-abovelOO”C,428
- to polyamides, 550
bichromate after-treatment, 427
cationic fixing agents, 427
chemical constitution, 405
cis-tram isomerism, 408
class A, 416
class R, 416
class C, 416
Direct dyes
copper after-trratment, 427
coupled, 424
diazotiscd and developed, 420
etfect of electrolytes, 411
- - liquor ratio, 413
- - pH. 414
- - temperature, 412
fastness, 414
formaldehyde after-treated, 425
hydrogen bonds with cellulose, 409
metallic salts after-treatment, 426
migration test, 416
stripping, 429
suhstantivity, 407 et seq.
test for class, 417
time of half-dyeing, 415
theory of dyeing, 407
Directional friction effect, 260
- light absorption, 316
Disperse dyes, 506 et seq.
application, 509
to polvamides, 549
build-uptest, 511
dyeing properties, 510
fastness, 512, 550
hydrogen bonding,, 509
mechanism of dyemg, 508
migration test, 511
rate-of-dyeing test, 511
soluhilities, 508
temperature range test, 511
Dispersal A, 440
Distribution coefficients, 628
- -, C.I.E., 630
Ditertiary hutyl peroxide, 13
Diurethane, 291
Divinylhenzene, 175
Divi?yl sulphone. 294
Domrnant wavelength, 627
Donaldson calorimeter, 635
Donnan pipette, 195
Drawing and orientation, 136
Dri-Sol finish, 277
Dry spinning rayon, 111
Durafil, 121
Duranol inhibitor GF, 518
--N, 518
Dyer’s thistle, 1, 2
Dyes, adsorption and non-polar forces, 386
- - I classification, 329 et seq.
-, extraction for chromatography, 610
-, physical attraction, 321
- and binding forces, 320
Dve molecules. size of . 320
Dyeing, effect bf agitaiion, 319
Dynel, 151
Easy care finishes, 291 et seq.
E.D.T.A., 1 7 6
EfAuents, 179
-, biological purification, 181
-. Durilication. 181
-; Synthetic ditergents, removal, 181
Elastomeric fibres, 157
- -, bleaching, 255
‘SENERAI, INDEX
Elastromeric fihres, spinning, 15X
Electromagnetic waves, 615
x Electrons and substantivity, 410
Emulsifying power, measurement, 194
Emulsin, 46
Enant, 140
End group, molecular weight determina.
tion, 28
Epidermis, 74
Erifon finiqh, 297
Erional NW, 552
Ethyl alcohol, hydrogen bonds, 25
2 : Ethylanthraquinone, 233
Ethylene cyanhydrin, 145
Ethylene diamine, 531
Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, 176
Ethylene glycol, manufacture, 141
Ethylene oxide, 145, 201
Ethylene polymerization, 13
Eulan BL, 300
Eulan N, 301
Formosul G, 604
Fortisan, 122
Free electron mode!, 314
~:~nUgne(tl.l~~r~~l~~rlurn, 327
- micelles, 26
Fulling mill,, 265
Fungi, conditions of growth, 301
Fustic, 430
Galacturonic acid, 43 ’
Gallons to litres conversion, 657
Gantt piler, 243
Gardinol WA, 195 ._
Gear crimping, 154 ’
Ciles-Archer test, 61&
Girland machine, 545
Gland, sebaceous, 74
- , sweat, 7 4
Glucose, 4 . 5
-, pyranose structure, 45
Glutamic acid, 85
Glycero!, 186
-, succmic acid polymer, 22
Glycine, 84
aw-Glycols, 141
Gossipy1 alcohol, 43
Gossypium barbadense, 38
herbatium, 37
hkutum, 37
peruvianurn, 38
Graft co-polymers, 14
Grege, 102
Grey scales, 589
Ground nuts, 129
Guild spectrophotometer, 639
False twist, ? 54
Farnsworth test. 618
Fast salts, 449 ’
Fastness classifications, 333
-. to chlorinated water test, 599
- - chlorination test, 601
- - chlorite bleaching, 600
- - cross-dyeing test, 601
- - hypochlorite bleaching test, 599
- - mercerizing test,, 602
- - peroxide bleachmg test, 600
Fats, 183 et seq.
Fehling’s solution, 50
Felting, effect of pH, 264
Ferric oxides as ccagulants, 162
Fibre-forming polymers, 131
Fibres, properties of, 12
Fibrils, fringed, 20
Fibroin, 100
Fihrolane, 129
-, tensile strength, 129
Fick’s Law, 319
Filippi glands, 101
Fine structure, 29
Fischer-Tropsch reaction, 138
Fixanol C, 200, 427
Flame resist tinishes, 296 et seq.
- - -, antimony oxide, 298
- - -, testing, 294
Flax, 66
cottonizing, 69
hackling, 68 :
impurities, 69
microscopic structure, 68
r i p p l i n g , 6 6
scutching, 68
tensile strength, 69
Fluorescent brtghtening a&ts, 255 et seq.
application, 258
discoloration of wool, 25$
light fastness, 2 5 8
use with hypochlorites, 258 ‘.
use with peroxides, 258
Formic acid, sp. gr. and concentration. 655
671
Haematin, 434
Haematoxylin, 4, 434 :.
Hank scouring machines, 216
Hard water properties, 165
Hardness of water, 164
- - -, determination 177
- - -, -with E.D.T.A.,. 1 7 8
- - - - with soap solutrqn, 1 7 7
-, Eriodhrome Black T titration, 179
-, methods of expressing, 164
Harrison’s test, 52
Harrow scouring machine, 213
Heat of dyeing, 325
- - setting, effect on dye uptake, 584
- - -, temperatures, 547
- - wetting, wool, 95
Hemp, 70
-, microscopic appearance, 71
-, retting. 71
-, uses, 71
Heptoic acid, 140
Hexadecane sulphonic acid, 198
Hexamethylene diamine, 131
- -, preparatior~, 133
- di-isocyanate, 152
Histidine, 85
Hog wool, 78
Hue, 616
672 (;I~NI.xAI. IsI)I:s
Hydroccllulosc. fcmmtio”, 1s
- , nwthylcnc hluc lest, 5 2
-) tests for. 50
Hydrochloric acid. sp. gr. wd co”centnItions,
654
Hydrogen bonds, 320
Hydrogen peroxide, 13, 232
estimation, 233
expression of strength, 233
manufacture, 232
pad-toll method, 247
properties, 234
Hydroxylysine, 8.5
4 : Hydroxy : 4’ : methyldiphenyl, 465
Hydroxynaphthoic acid, 9, 445
Identification of dyes, 603 et seq.
lgepon A, 198
-T, 198
Iminodiacetic acid, 176
Immunized cotton, 65
Indican, 476
Indigo, 9
application, continuous dyeing, 4X6
-to cotton, 486
- -wool, 487
dyeing piece goods 486
- warps, 486
fermentation reduction, 3
historical account, 475
natural separation, 476
qualitative test, 477
substituted, 479
synthesis, 477 et seq.
white, 477
Zndigofera tinctwia, 2, 475
Indigoid vat dyes, 475
Indigosols, 497
Indigotin, 2, 475
preparation, 476
;F;bophe”ol, 464
Indoxyl, 476
Injector, 207
Instrumental match prediction, 643 et seq.
Interfacial graft polymerization, 281
Intermittent lime-soda softener, 169
Intermolecular forces, 24
International organization for standardization,,
587
Ionamme dyes, 506
Ionic links, 320
Irgapadol A, 403
- P, 403
Irgasol NJ, 556
Irgasolvent process, 401
Isatin, 477
Is&is tinctoria, 2
Isihara test, 617
I.S.O., 587
Isocholestero!, 83
Isoelectric pomt, 97
Isotatic polymers, 14
- polypropylene, 15
J box, 244
J box, peroxide bleaching, 245
liatan~ll IV, 575
Keratin, X4. X7
-3 chemical composition, X4
-, extended struc1urc. XX
-, helical structure, XX
licrmcs! 4
I&r hodin~, 206 et seq.
- -, assistants, 209
Kiers, 206 et seq.
-, high pressure, 208
Kilburn mill, 266
Kinetics of dye adsorption, 327.
Kiton red test, 286
Kubelka-Munk equation, 643
Langmuir equilibrium, 326
Lanital, 129
Lanoc CN, 301
Lanthmnine, 91, 270
Laurie acid, 183
I,e\,atix dyes, 540
Leucine, 85
L,ight, visible, wavelengths, 615
- fastness, artificial sources, 592
- -, effect of humidity, 593
Lignin, 73
Lignocellulose, 67
L,ime boil, 212
Lime-soda softening, 171 et seq.
Linacrae, 66
Linen, 66 et seq.
- , tensile strength, 69
-count, 69
Linseed oil, 66
Linum usitatissinntm, 66
Lissapol C, 199, 214
- LS, 198
- N, 201, 214, 441
Lissolamine V, 201
Logwood, 4, 11, 43.0, 433
- , applicatlooo; ti3ylk, 435
-,--. )
Lorol, 199
Lousiness, test, 105
L&bond tintometer, 634
Lovihond-Schofield tintometer, 634
Lucine, 85
Luminosity, 616, 628
Lyofix EW, 427
Lyogen SMK, 443
- DK, 418
Lysine, 85, 89
Machines
annular cage, 339
beam dyeing, 364
cake dyeing, 349
cop dyeing, 351
dyeing, basic requirements, 340
GENERAL INDEX
Machines
GSH hank dyeing, 344
Hussong, 342
loose stock dyeing, 360
overhead oaddle. 362
package dicing, &h-ct seq.
pulsator. 343
rocket dicing, 350
rotating drum 362
top dyeing 337 et seq.
toroid, 363
winch dyeing, 352 et seq.
-, high temperature, 354
McAdam sensitivity ellipses, 630
McGowan factor, 179
Malachite green absorption vectors, 317
Meggy’s theory of dyeing, 321
Melafix process, 272
Melamine, 280
Melt spinning, 135
Membrane equilibrium, 60
Mercaptals, 29
Mercerization, 62
-, tests for, 64
Mercerized cotton, benzopurpurin test, 64
- -, microscopic appearance, 64
Merkalon, 153
Mesityl alcohol, 184
Metachrome mordant method, 11, 438
1 : 1 Metal complex dyes, 439
2 : 1 Metal complex dyes, 443
Metamerism, 617
Methionine, 85
Methylene blue test for hydrocellu!ose, 52
- - - - oxycellulose, 52
- - and wool degradation, 287
- dichloride, 130
- glycol, 141
Methyl01 melamine, 280
Methyl orange resonance, 307
Methvl ,$ubelliferone, 256
Metric conversion factors, 6SS
Micelle, fringed, 20
hlicelle, soap, 187
Micro-organisms, action on cellulose, 58
Mildew and wtton, 58
Milk casein, 129
Milling, effect of pH, 264
- shrinkage, determination, 284
hlillon’s reagent, 108
hlitin FF, 3 0 1
Modacryls, 148
Mohair, 98
Moisture content of fibres, 30
Moisture meters, 34
Molecular energy levels, 305
- orbitals and colour , 309 et seq.
- weight, end group method, 28
- -, osmotic method, 27
- -, ultracentrifuge method, 29
- -, hy l i g h t scattcring, 2 9
hIonochl~)rotria~in~l dyes, 528 et seq.
- m-, application, 529 et seq.
Rlrlnochrom;ltor! 639
~lonoethanr)lamIne, 203
~10110tilaments, 12
Monomers, bifunctional, 22
Monomers, trifunctional, 22
Montanyl alcohol, 43
Moplin, 153
Mordant dyes, 430 et seq.
- -, natural, 431
Mordants, 4
Mothproofing, 300 et seq.
Munsell colour system, 620
Myristic acid, 183
673
Nagel anomaloscope, 6 18
Naphthol AS, 445
- AS.AN, 447
- AS.BS, 447
- AS. derivatives and substantivity, 447
- AS.G, 447
- ASOL,. 447
N.B.S. Umts, 5 8 8
Nekal, 209
Nekal A, 198
Nelson process, 119
Neolan dyes, 11, 439
Neps, 81
Nernst distribution, 326
Nitric acid, action on cellulose, 59
Nitrilo triacetic acid, 176
Nitrobenzene, 6
Nitrocellulose rayon, 109
Nitro dyes, 379
Nitrogen constituents, cotton, 43
Nitrosamine red, 444
Non-ionic surface active compounds, 201
- - - -, solubility, 202
Nutting-Hilger spectrophotometer, 640
Nylon
baf17dyeable and standard yarns dyeing,
crystallinity, 22
deep dye, 138
deep dye/basic dyeable dyeing, 557
d&string. 138
drawing, 136
effect of methoxylation, 23
heat setting, 545 et seq.
hydrogen bonds, 137
Nylon 6, 138 et seq.
- 7 , 1 4 0
- 9, 140
- 1 1 , 1 3 9
- 66, 131, 134, 137
- 6 6 -t 6 , 1 3 9
- 100, 138, 556
- 110, 138, 556
- 120, 138
- 610, 132, 139
- 6 melting point, 139
- 66 tensile strength, 138
Oils, 183 et seq.
Oleic acid, 183
Oleine, 186
- Orhitals, 3 1 1
Organzinc. 102
Orlon, 148
Ortho-cortex, wool, 77
674 GENERAL INDEX
Orthophenyl phenol, 563
Orthophthalic acid, 27
Orthoxylene, 142
Osmometer, 27
Ostwald colour classification, 618
Oxanthrene, 488
Oxanthrene dyes, 370
Oxazine dyes, 369
OX0 reaction, 198
Oxycellulose, 4 9
acidic, 50
estimation, 53
methylene blue test, 52
reducing, 50
silver nitrate test, 52, 53
tests for, 50
Package dyeing, 346 et seq.
Pad dyeing, booster method, 500
-jig method, 4 9 9
- mangle, 359
- roll bleaching, 247
- steam method, 499
Palatine fast salt, 440
Palmitic acid, 183
Papain, 278
Paracortex, wool, 77
Paranitroaniline, diazotization, 424
Para Red, 444
Paraxylene, 142
Parchment paper, 58
Peach wood, 4
Pe Ce, 150
Pectic acid, 43
Pegson pre-boarding machine, 546
Peptides, 84
Peracetic acid, 239
- -, action on disulphides, 91
Perlon, 138
Perlon U, 152
Permanent hardness, 167
Permanent set, 93
Permonosulphuric acid, 275
Peroxide, acid bleach, 250
- bleaching, 234 et so., 248
- -, metallic catalysts, 249
Perspiration, fastness determination, 598
Persulphates, 13
pH and indicators, 657
Phenol Blue, resonance, 308
Phenylalanine,, 85
* Phenyldiazonmm chloride, 7
Phenyl phosphoric acid, 138
Phloem, 67
Phthalic acid, 478
Phthalimide, 478
Picric acid, 380
Polyacrylic acid, 12
Polyacrylonitrile mixtures, dyeing, 583
- /cellulose dyeing, 584
- /polyamide dyeing, 585
- /polyester dyeing, 586
Polyacrylonitrileg, 145 et seq.
affinity for baste dyes, 571
application of acid dyes, 572
- - basic dyes, 571
Polyacrylonitriles, application of premetallized
dyes, 673
- - vat dyes, 571
bulking, 147
co-polymers, 147
durability of, 149
fastness of disperse dyes, 570
second order transition, 148
spinning, 146 et seq.
temperature and dyeing, 570, 572
tensile strength, 150
Polyalanine, 88
Polyamide 610, 1 4 0
- /acrylic mixtures, dyeing, 585
- fibres, characteristics, 140
Polyamides, application of acid dyes, 552
-, - - - mordant dyes, 554
-, - - direct dyes, 551
-, - - disperse dyes, 549
-, - - premetallized dyes, 555
-,-- solacet dyes, 550
-, back tanning, 554
-, dyeing with solvents, 556
-, fastness of acid dyes, 553
-, heat setting, 545 et seq.
-, scouring, 549
Polyaminoperlagonic acid, I&
Polyesters, 140 et seq.
/acrylic mixtures, dyeing, 586
application of azoic dyes, 564, 566
application of vat dyes, 566
bleaching, 254
continuous dyeing, 568
dyeing, 559
dyeing with carriers, 561
effect of temperature on dyeing, 566
high temperature dyeing, 564
mixture dyeing, 581
/polyamide mixtures, dyeing, 582
spinning, 142 et seq.
/wool mixtures, dyeing, 582
Polyfunctionai cross linking in dyeing, 541
Polymerization, 13, 131
Polymers, fibre forming, 17, 131
Polynosic fibres, 124
Polypropylene, atactic, 14
-, isotactic, 14, 23
-, syndiotactic, 14, 23
Polystyrene, cross-linked, 175
Polythene, 153
Polyurethane, 152
Polyvinyl alcohol, 12, 151
- chloride, 150
- chloride, chlorinated , 151
- fibres, 150
Potassium permanganate, unshrinkable
finish, 273
- persulphate, - -, 233
Premetallized dyes, 11, 439 et seq.
2 : 1 premetallized dyes, 441 et seq.
Premetallized dyes, application to polyamides,
555
- -, 7 - acrylics, 573
Primazme dyes, 540
Proban finish, 297
Procilan dyes, 443, 542
GENERAL INDEX 675
I’rocilnn dyes, fastness, 543
Procinyl dyes, S43
- -, ilppllcatlon to polyamides, 543
I’rocion dyes. ii22 e t seq.
- -, exhaustion, 523
- H dyes, 529
Procion-resin process, 546
Proline, 85
Protanopes, 617
Proteins. helical structure, 88
Pyran, 45
Pyranthrone, 481
Pyrazolone dyes, 380
Quinone! 304
Quinonold theory of colour, 305
Rabbit hair, 98, 264
Rain water, 160
Ramie, 69
Rapid Fast Dyes, 449
Rate of dyeing, 322
Rayon, dry spinning. 111
-, *lass coloration, 120
-, skin effect, 123
-, wet spinning, 111
Reactive d>-es, 520 et seq.
acid hydrolysis, 531
anomalous Huidities, 535
applicatxm. 527 et seq.
- at high temperature, 529
- to cellulosics, 539
- to polyamides, 536
-to silk, 5 3 5
- to wool, 536
cold dyemg, 526
cross ltnking, 525
eshaustion, 523
fastness, 531
hydrolysis, 524
molten metal process, 535
pad-roll methods, 533
poor afin1ty, 530
reactions wth cellulose. 521
stripping, 535
trichloropyrimidine, 530
washing off. 527
Reactone dyes, 530
Reduction clearing. 519
Reflectance curves, 630
IRegenerated celluloses. crystallinity, 22
- man-made fihrcs. 109
Relative humldlty. 3 1
Relaxation shrinkage, 282
Remazol dyes. 538
Resoflx c. 426
Resonance, 306
RettinE, 6 7
Rhovyl. 150
Ricinoleic acid, 183, 197
Rilsan. 130
Rochelle salt, 50
Rochon p&m, 641
Iit~,t.:r*.~ sc; ;:nny nlachinc, 21 S,
Rotation X-ray diagram, 1X
SatH0wer, 1
Saliwl anllidc, 302
Salicj,lic acid, 426
Salt linkages, 24, 90
Sandotix I<, 282
- WE,, 427
Sapanune CH, 199
Saran. 153
Saturation, colour, 616
Scale formmg waters, 165
Schweitzer’s reagent, 40, 64
Scotch mill, 266
Scoured wool, analysis, 219
Scouring cotton, 203
- el%ct of electrolytes, 202
- machines, 213, 216
- polyamides, 549
- silk, 221
- wool, 212 et seq.
Sea Island cotton, 38
Sebaceous gland, 74
&basic acid, 132, 139
Second order transition, 143
Secondary cellulose acetate, 126
Sequestering agents, 175
Sericin, 100, 104
Sericulture, 99 ct seq.
Serine, 8.5
Setacyl dyes, SO6
Setting of wool, 92
Shirlan, 302
Shirley moisture meter, 34
Shrink resist finishes, 266 et seq.
Shrinkage, Martin’s theory, 263
-, milling. determination, 284
-, Shorter’s theory, 262
Sihca, coagulant, 162
Silicates in kier boiling, 209
Silicones in waterproofing, 299
Silk, 98 et seq.
action of acids, 106
- - alkalis. 106
- - heat, 105
- -salts, 106
blcachinp, 253
boiling off, 221
chemical composition. 100, 103
c0c0011s. 100
degumming. 221
detection of damage. 105
fihrils, 103
fluidity test, 105
glands, 100
gum, 100
lousy. 105
microscopic appearance, 102
natural hIstory, 98
ruptured fibres, 103
scouring, 221
scroop, 100
spun, 10:
tussw,~ 107
welghtmg, 107
X\ild, 107
676 GENERAL INDEX
Silver nitrate, test for hydrocellulose, 53
- - , - - oxycellulose, 53
Simon-Goodwin colour difference charts,
632
Singeing, 204
I
y&s;; prysq 9 3
Skin, &u&ure of, 74 /
- , wool, 7 8
Soaps, 185 et seq.
manufacture, 186
oils for manufacture, 186
potassium, 186
properties, 186
selection, 196
solutions, critical concentration, 194
-, lamellar structure, 137
-, micelles, 1 8 7
-, propertres, 187 et seq.
-, standard, 177
titre, 196
Sodium aluminate, 162
Sodium chlorite, 240
- -, manufacture, 240
- -, mechanism of bleaching, 240
- -, pad-roll method, 247
- -, use in bleaching, 241
- - and corrosion, 243
Sodium dithionite, 252
- hydrosulphite, 254
- hypochlorite, 223 et seq.
- -, estimation of available chlorine, 268
- -, manufacture, 223
- metasilicate, 209
- perborate, 239
- percarbonate, 239
- peroxide, properties, 237
- -, use m bleaching, 238
Softener, intermittent, 169
Softeners, metering chemicals, 170
Softening, base exchange, 172 et seq.
Solacet dyes, application to polyamides,
5.50
Soledon dyes, 497
Solid shades, dyeing, 574
Solvent scouring, 210
Souple silk, 221
Soxhlet extractor, 219
Specific gravity, Twaddell/Baume conversion
tables, 650
Spectrophotometer, Guild, 639
-, Nutting-Hilger, 640
-, recording, 641
Spinneret, 110
Spotting tile, 605
Spun silk, 102
S.R.A. dyes, 128, 507
Stabilizer C, 249
Stainless steel, composition, 336
Standard atmosphere, 30
- depth dyeings, 587
- illuminants, 633
- observer, 628
- potential, 323
- regains, 659
Standfast molten metal machine, 501
Staple fibres, 12
Steam pressure and temperature table, 653
Stearic acid, 183
Stearin, 186
Steeping press, 115
Stenter, 547
Stereospecific polymers, 12
Staving, 251
Stretch spinning, 112, 121
Strike, 328
Stuffing box, 155
Sub-soil water, 160
Subtractive prrmaries, 616
Succinic acid, 141
Sulphated alcohols, 199
Sulphonation! 6
Sulphur dioxtde bleaching, 251
Sulphur dyes, 9, 463 et seq.
after-treatment, 469
application, 470
application to wool, 470
bronzing, 470
chemical structure, 464
detection, 464
dissolving, 467
dyeing properties, 467
fastness,, 466, 469
propertres, 466
tendering cellulosic fibres, 470
water soluble, 471
Sulphuricacid,sp.gr.andconcentration.653
Sulphuryl chloride, action on wool, 276
et seq.
Superpolyamides, 13 1
Surface tension, 188 et seq.
Surface water, 160
Suint, 82
Synchromate process, 438
Syn diazotates, 449
Syndiotactic polymers, 14
Synthetic detergents, 197
Synthetic fibres, definition, 131
- -, dyeing, 544 et seq.
Svetema pad-roll machine, 532
Sweat gland, 74
Swelling, 30
Tannin01 WR, 552, 575
Taslan, 1.55
Teepol, 199
Temperature control, automatic, 365
Temporary hardness, 164
- -, determination, 178
- -, removal, 167
Tenasco, 121, 124
Terephthalic acid, 24, 141
Terylene, 141
crystallinity, 22
manufacture, 142 et seq.
molecular configuration, 141
tensile strength, 143
Testing dyed materials, 587 et seq.
Tetartanopes, 617
Tet~~cn2~6droxymethylphosphonium chlo
Tetramethyl glucose, 28
GENERAL INDEX
‘l’etramethylamino triphenyl carbinol, 304
Tetramethylol acetylene diurea, 291
Tex system, 659
Theory of dyeing, 3 18 et seq.
- - - thermodynamics, 322
Thermal’activation, 323
Thermovil, 150
Thiazine dyes, 369
Theonine, 85
Thioglycollic acid, 92
THPC, 2 9 6
Tiliacear, 72
Time of half-dyeing, 327, 415
Tinegal, 443
Tin&x, 427
Tinopal BV, 256
Tinting, 1
Titanium, 336
- dioxide, 120, 138
Titanox finish, 297
Time, 196
Tram silk, 102
Trelon, 140
Triallyl phosphate, 298
Triamine PR, 531
Triazinyl dyes, 520
Tricel , 130
Trifunctional monomers, 22
Trioleine,. 183
Tripalmmn, 183
Triphenylmethane dyes, 6
Triphenylmethyl, 305
Trisaziridinylphosphine oxide, 298
Tristearin, 183
Tritanopcs, 617
Trypsin, 278
Tryptophane, 85
Tumescal CD, 561
Tumescal OT, 563
Turkey Red, 4
- - dyeing, 431
- -oil,, 147
Tussur silk, 107
Tyrosine, 85
Ulstron. 153
Ultracentrifuge, molecular weight, 29
Undecvlenic acid. 139
U n i o n hveing, 574
- - with azoic dves, 578
- - - reactive dyes, 578
Unshrinkable finishes, 260
Urea, 130
- bisulphite test, 288
- formaldehyde crease-resist finish, 290
Urticnceae, 69
Vacanceine Red process, 9
Valine, 85
Van der Waals’ forces, 26
Vaporlok Unit 210
Vat-acid process, 504
Vat dyes, 9, 474 et seq.
Abbott-Cox process, 497
accelerated photochemical action, 492
affinity and planarity, 484
Vat dves
anthraquinone, application, 488
application, 485
--to acrylics, 571
application to knitted fabrics, 50:
chemical properties, 474
chromatography, 611
copperas vat, 485
crystallization in fibre, 492
dispersing agents, 490
dyeing properties, 493
fastness, 492
for casement furnishings, 493
hydrosulphite reduction, 486
levelling test, 495
method of dyeing tests, 494
migration test, 495
oxidation, 491
pigment padding, 498
reduction methods, 489
soaping, effect on shade, 491
solubilized application, 497
- leuco compounds, 495
- Morton-Sundour method, 49(
strike test, 494
stripping, 505
structure and affinity, 484
substantivity, 410
vatting temperatures, 490
zinc-lime vat, 485
Vegetable cell, 37
- fibres, multicellular, 66 et seq.
Velan PF, 299
Vicara, 130
Vinyl acetate, 150
- chloride, 150
- cyclohexane dioxide, 292
Vinylidene chloride, 152
Vinyon H.H., 151
- N, 1 5 1
Viscometer, for fluidity, 54
Viscose, coagulating solution, 1 I7
- fibres, cross section, 124
- rayon, 114 et seq.
- -, continuous spinning, 111 et
- -, desulphurization, 119
- -, purification, 117
- -, tensile strength, 121
Warp yam, 12
Washing fastness, I.S.O. tests, 596 c
- -, - recommendation No. 1, 5
- -, - - No. 2, 597
- -, - - No. 3 , 5 9 7
- -, - - No. 4, 597
- - - - No. 5, 598
Watei, 160 et seq.
biological oxygen demand, 180
chemical oxygen demand, 180
classification, 160
dissolved oxygen, determination,
filtration, 162
hardness, 164
retting, 67
scale forming, 165
softening, 167 et seq.
678 GENERAL INDEX
water
soluble impurities, 162, 164
suspended matter, 162
- solids determination, 181
use of coagulants, 162
Waterproof finishes, 289 et seq.
Waterproofing, aluminium soaps, 299
-, silicones, 2Y9
Waxes, 181 et seq.
saponilication, 184
&ol PA, 298
\Veft yarn, 12
Weighting silk, 107
Weld, 430
Wet spinning, rayon, Ill
M’hiteley scouring machine, 216
Wild silks, 107
Willey, Y8
Williams unit, 500
Wool, 74
action of acids, 96
- -air, 95
- -alkalis, 96
- - benzoquinone, 218
- -chlorine, 266 et seq.
- - di-isocyanates, 280
- -enzymes, 278
- -ethylene sulphide, 279
- - hypochlorous acid, 270
- -sodium hydroxide, 277
- -sodium sulphide, 278
- -thioglycoliic acid, 92
alkali solubility test, 250
Amino acids, 85
bleaching, 248
botanies, 79
carbonization, 97
chlorination, 266 et seq.
composition, 82
cortical cells, 77
/cotton unions, dyeing, 574 .
crimp, 79
cross-bred, 79
cystine cross-links, 76, 89
- - and shrinkage, 262
cuticle, 76
damaged fibre count, 285
dichlorisocvanuric acid unshrinkable
finish, 274
dry chlorination, 270
effect of chlorine on SCAS, 267
epicuticle, 76
exocuticle, 76
fat, 83
felting, 260
fibre diameter, 79
grading, 78
heat of wetting, 95
helical structure, 89
hydrogen peroxide unshrinkable finish,
2 7 5
impurities, 82
interfacial graft polymerization, 281
isoelectric point, 97
jet scouring, 215
Kiton Red test, 2 8 6
\V”“l
Melafix process. 272
melamine process, 281
hlethylcnc Illue test, 287
milling, 266
mineral matter, 83
neps, 81
orthocortes, 77
paracortox. 77
Pauly test, 2X7
permanent scr, 02
pcrmonosulphuric acid treatment, 275
/‘polynmidc mixtures, dyeing, 580
,‘polycster mixtures, dh-cinp, 5X2
polymers and unshrinkability, 280
potassium permanpanate process, 273
quality, 78
-, air flow method, 80
regain curves, 33
salt linkages, 89
scouring, 212 et seq.
scouring and fulling machine, 265
scouring effluents, 182
setting, 92
shrink resist finishes, 266 et seq.
shrinkage, 260
shrinkage causes, 262
silicon polymers, 281
sodium hydroxide unshrinkable finishes,
2 7 7
solvent scouring and milling, 266
sorting, 78
Stevenson unshrinkable process, 273
structure of fibre, 76
sulphur dioxide bleaching, 251
sulphuryl chloride unshrinkable process,
276 et seq.
super contraction, 94
tone and tone dyeings, 441
Tootal unshrinkable finish, 277
unshrinkabilitp, assessment, 282 et seq.
- and spot welding, 279
- with cross-links, 278 et seq.
- - polymers, 279 et seq.
unshrinkable process, Edwards and
Clayton, 271
urea bisulphite test, 288
wax, 83
way dyeing, 574
weathering, 95
wetting, 95
X-ray diffraction diagrams, 86
Xanthating chum, 116
Xanthic acid, 114
Xanthone dyes, 379
Xenon lamp, 595
X-ray diagram, ramie, 19
- --, Terylene, 1 9
- diffraction, 17
Xylem, 67
X Y Z stimuli, 624
Zein, 130
Zeolites. 173

No comments:

Post a Comment